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Ophthamology

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hororehi's version from 2017-05-27 14:31

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Question Answer
The visual field defect commonly associated with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is?Altitudinal field defect
The following are risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy except?... A) Male B) 40-60 years of age C) Large myopic discs D) Hypertension E) DiabetesLarge myopic discs
Which of the following is not a sign of giant cell arteritis? A) Scalp tenderness B)Jaw claudication C)Headache D)Flashing lightsFlashing lights
Risk factors for retinal detachment include the following except? A)Myopia B)Retinal detachment in the fellow eye C)Trauma D)HypermetropiaHypermetropia
Symptoms of retinal detachment include the following except? D) Flashing lights (photopsia) more commonly reported in the peripheral temporal field B)Dull pain around the eye C)Floaters D)Visual field lossDull pain around the eye
Clinical examination of retinal detachment includes all of the following except? A)Pupil dilation with pilocarpine B)Measuring visual acuity C)Checking for relative afferent pupil defect D)Examination of all 4 retinal quadrants E)Visual fields F)Examination of the fellow eyePupil dilation with pilocarpine
Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is caused by occlusion of the?Short posterior ciliary arteries
True or false? PVD leads to retinal detachment in a majority of cases.False
True or false? Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) occurs when the vitreous separates from the retina, as part of the normal ageing process.True
True or false? Serous retinal detachment occurs when exudative fluid collects between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, without formation of a retinal tear.True
True or false? Tractional retinal detachment occurs when retinal scar tissue contracts, pulling the retina off the underlying retinal pigment epithelium, without the formation of a retinal tear.True
Which is a symptom of acute angle-closure glaucoma? A) Unilateral loss of vision. B) Halos around lights. C) Unilateral red eye. D)Painful eye. E) Nausea and vomiting F) All of the aboveAll of the above
Risk factors for angle-closure glaucoma include? A) Myopia. B) Deep anterior chamber angle. C) Asian race. D) Male.Asian race
True or false? Nerve fibres from each retina leave the eye at the optic disc and travel along the optic nerve where they join at the chiasm.True
True or false? Nerve fibres from the temporal retina of each eye cross over at the optic chiasm.False
True or false? After leaving the chiasm the nerve fibres travel along the optic tract to the lateral geniculate body.True
True or false? Neurones pass through the optic radiations to reach the visual cortex.True
A left homonymous hemianopia is due to a lesion or pressure on the ?Right optic tract
The more congruous the visual field defect, the closer the lesion is located to the ?Occipital lobe
True or false? Concerning pituitary tumours, the defects are usually relative and respect the vertical midline but not the horizontal midline.True
True or false? Pituitary tumours usually cause bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia.False
True or false? In pituitary tumours, the defect becomes more complete with disease progression.True
True or false? Pituitary tumours are often asymmetric and eventually produce optic neuropathy.True
The third cranial nerve (oculomotor) nerve supplies all of the following muscles except? A) Superior rectus B) Inferior rectus C) Lateral rectus D) Medial rectusLateral rectus
The forth cranial nerve (trochlear) supplies which muscle?Superior oblique
True or false? A painful unilateral third nerve palsy suggests a posterior communicating artery aneurysm this requires urgent neurological assessment.True
Which of the following does not usually produce bilateral disc swelling? A)Optic disc drusen B)Papilloedema C)Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy D)Malignant hypertensionArteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Bells palsy affects which cranial nerve?Facial
True or false? In a darkened room the smaller pupil is likely to be the defective one?True
Which cranial nerve innervates the levator muscle to maintain elevation of the upper eyelid?Oculomotor (3rd)
In which condition is it characteristic for ptosis to becoming worse with effort and especially at the end of the day?Myasthenia gravis.
True or false? The iris sphincter muscle is innervated by the parasympathetic division of the 3rd cranial nerve.True
True or false? The function of the sphincter pupillae is pupil dilation.False... its function is pupil constriction (miosis).
True or false? The sphincter pupillae fibres synapse in the ciliary ganglion.True
True or false? The neurotransmitter of the sphincter pupillae is acetylcholine.True
True or false? Ptosis is a feature of facial nerve palsy?False... it causes eyelid retraction not ptosis
An eye with too much refractive power focuses light in front of the retina, rendering the patient: A)Presbyopic B)Astigmatic C)Myopic D)HypermetropicMyopic
In a hypermetropic eye, where are the light rays focussed?Behind the retina
Presbyopia affects which group first: 1)Myopes 2)Hypermetropes 3)Astigmats 4)EmmetropesHypermetropes
Which feature of the eye is not important in determining the refractive power of the eye? 1)The cornea 2)The lens 3)The vitreous body 4)The axial length of the eyeThe vitreous body
True or false? Ciliary muscle contracts so suspensory ligaments relax and lens gets more concave hence an increase in lens power.False
True or false? Ciliary muscle relaxes so suspensory ligaments contracts and lens gets more convex hence an increase in lens power.False
True or false? Ciliary muscle contracts so suspensory ligaments relax and lens gets more convex hence an increase in lens power.True
Which of the following signs indicate neonatal conjunctivitis? A)Lid swelling B)Discharge C)Injected hyperaemic conjunctiva D)All of the aboveAll of the above
Which of the following signs is the most common finding in non-accidental Injury? A)Optic disc swelling B)Retinal haemorrhages C)Retinal detachment D)Traumatic cataractRetinal haemorrhages
True or false? Cycloplegic refraction uses tropicamide eye dropsFALSE. Cycloplegic refraction involves the use of cyclopentolate eye drops.
True or false? Cycloplegic refraction involves pupil dilation and relaxation of the ciliary muscle that focus the lens accommodationTrue
True or false? Refraction is carried out by orthoptist, optician or ophthalmologistTrue
True or false? Cycloplegic refraction is used to unmask any underlying refractive errorTrue
True or false? Retinoblastoma is rare but the most common intraocular malignancy in childrenTrue
True or false? Retinoblastoma can be hereditaryTrue
True or false? Retinoblastoma requires routine ophthalmologist referralFalse
True or false? Retinoblastoma can be bilateralTrue
True or false? Amblyopia is treated by occlusion therapy (the unaffected eye is patched)True
True or false? Common signs and symptoms of cataract include: Gradual reduction in visual acuity giving blurred visionTrue
True or false? Common signs and symptoms of cataract include: Increase in myopiaTrue
True or false? Common signs and symptoms of cataract include: Increase in hypermetropiaFalse
True or false? Common signs and symptoms of cataract include: GlareTrue
Nuclear sclerosis is commonly associated with...Age-related cataract
True or false? Wet AMD is less common than dry AMDTrue
True or false? Wet AMD is more severe than dry AMDTrue
True or false? Wet AMD is due to bleeding new choroidal vessels that grow under and into the retinal. These cause macula oedema and scaring.True
True or false? Wet AMD is due to slowly progressive atrophy of the macula retinal pigment epithelial cells.False
Are cotton wool spots associated with wet AMD?No
Fluorescein angiography is used to identify? A) Retinal detachment B) Wet AMD C) Dry AMD D) All of the aboveWet AMD
Typically features of primary open angle glaucoma include the following, except? A) Optic nerve swelling B) Optic neuropathy (disc cupping) C) Loss of peripheral visual field D) Raised intraocular pressureOptic nerve swelling
Risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma include the following, except? A) Diet B) Family history of glaucoma C) Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) D) Increasing ageDiet
The primary function of the orbicularis muscle is...?Eyelid closure
Which of the following does not usually form part of the treatment for eyelid laceration? A)Referral to ophthalmologist for surgical repair B)Punctum occlusion C)Tetanus if needed D)Ocular lubricantsPunctum occlusion
Which of the following is not a usual problem following a lid laceration? 1) Ectropian 2) Proptosis 3) Ptosis 4) Extensive bruisingProptosis
Which of the following is most likely to cause a penetrating eye injury? A) Orbital blowout fracture B) Squash ball into eye C) Punch to eye D) HammeringHammering
Treatment of corneal abrasion doesn't include which of the following? A)Topical antibiotics eye drops B)NSAID for pain relief, if no contraindications C)Advise on future use of eye protection D)Topical steroid eye dropsSteroids
Which type of the following chemicals is most destructive to ocular tissue? A)Car battery acid B)Hydrochloric acid C)Detergent D)AmmoniaAmmonia
The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include all of the following except? A)Irritation and tearing B)Red eye C)Intermittent blurred vision D)Photophobia E)DischargePhotophobia
Mucopurulent discharge is more likely to be associated with? A)Viral conjunctivitis B)Allergic conjunctivitis C)Chlamydial conjunctivitis D)Bacterial conjunctivitisChlamyidal (but also sometimes bacterial)
Which of the following is not related to a diagnosis of viral conjunctivitis? A)Patient's child recently had red eyes and watering B)Patient has a sore throat C)Patient is a contact lens wearer D)Patient has a feverContact lenses
Signs of viral conjunctivitis include all of the following except? A)Lid oedema B)Eyelash crusting C)Follicles D)PapillaePapillae
Risk factors for bacterial keratitis include all of the following except? A)HLA B27 Seronegative spondyloarthropathy B)Corneal foreign body C)Contact lens wear D)Corneal exposureHLA B27 (risk factor for uveitis)
What is hypopyon?A collection of white cells collects under gravity in the inferior part of the anterior chamber of the eye
The following signs are most likely to occur with what condition?: -Follicular conjunctivitis -Preauricular adenopathy -Staining epithelial dendritesHerpes simplex
50% of patients with scleritis may have associated systemic disease, including all of the following except A)Rheumatoid Arthritis B)Diabetes C)Wegener Granulomatosis D)Polyarteritis nodosa E)Systemic lupus erythematosusDiabetes
What condition? Loss of vision, painful red eye, halos around lights, nausea & vomiting, history of hypermetropia, reduced acuity, corneal oedema, oval unreactive pupilAcute angle closure glaucoma
Treatment of chalazion includes all of the following except? A)Antibiotic eye drops B)Conservative treatment initially (hot compresses twice daily for one month) C)Incision and curettage if persistsAntibiotic eye drops
Which of the following is least likely to be associated with diabetes? A)Maculopathy B)Uveitis C)Extra ocular muscle palsy D)Retinal vascular occlusions E)CataractUveitis
Advanced diabetic eye disease can cause iris rubeosis. What complication can this cause? A)Cataract B)Glaucoma C)Uveitis D)Retinal detachmentGlaucoma
Prevalence of thyroid eye disease is higher in what sex?Females
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