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OPC Midterm Terms

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nibbs06's version from 2017-10-27 01:38

Terms

Question Answer
Angiomaswelling or tumor of blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymphatic vessels (lymphanogioma)
Gangrenedeath of body tissue, usually from loss of blood supply
Malignantabnormal growth or neoplasm, characteriaed by localized invasive growth and metastasis
Necrosis/Necroticdead/decaying tissue
Tumorany swelling of a body part
Abrasiondamage to the epidermis or dermis from a shearing force (scrape).
Acneinflamed or infected sebaceous gland of the skin
Bullaelarge vesicle containing serum
Carbuncleabscess/infection of the hairy parts of the skin – multiple furuncles
Cellulitisinflammation of the skin secondary to infection
Cicatrixscar (generally referring to one of surgical origin)
Diaphoresisprofuse sweating
Decubitus Ulcerpressure ulcer that has eroded into the deep tissues; “bed sore”
Dermatitissuperficial inflammation of the skin
Ecchymosisblood escaping into the tissues causing superficial discoloration (not necessarily from trauma)
Erythmearedness of skin due to dilation or increased blood flow
Furuncleabscess/infection of hairy part of skin
Keloidexcessive hyperplastic scar formation
Keratosisbuild-up of dry scaling skin
Maculediscoloration (spot) of the skin, not raised
Nevusmole, birthmark
Pallorpaleness
Papuleraised discoloration of the skin
Petechiaepinpoint hemorrhage spots in the skin (transient)
Pruritussevere itching
Pustuleraised discoloration of the skin with fluid enclosed
Rubordusky redness to skin
Striaebands of brown, purplish, white discoloration of skin
Telangiectasiadilation of a small surface blood vessel
Turbortension of the skin and underlying tissue
Ulcer/Ulcerationsuperficial lesion on the skin or membranes caused by tissue breakdown and loss of viability
Verrucacontagious, usually painful, wart
Vesiclesmall elevation of the skin containing serum
Paronychiainflammatory process involving the nail bed
Splinter hemorrhagethin red/brown linear clots under the nails that run in the direction of nail growth
Arrhythmiainterruption of heart rhythm (irregular heart rate)
Bruitsmurmur like sound of vascular origin
Pyrexiafebrile response; “fever” (noun)
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HNEET

Question Answer
Near sightedness is known asmyopia
Far sightedness is known ashyperopia
Farsightedness, caused by age, via hardening of the lenspresbyopia
Defect in visual field (visual disturbances) is known asscotomas
Hirsutismabnormally excessive facial hair
Blepharitisinflammation of eyelid
Cataractslens clouding
Chalazionlower lid Meibomian gland obstruction
Diplopiadouble vision
Ectropionturning out of eyelid, causing local inflammation
EOMIextraocular muscles intact
Exophthalmiaabnormal protrusion of eyeball (seen in hyperthyroid Pxs)
Glaucomaabnormally increased intraocular pressure
Hemianopialoss of vision in half of visual field (uni or bilateral)
Homonymouscorresponding halves of both retinas
Hodeoluminfection of oil gland of eyelid “stye”
MiosisPupillary construction
Mydriasispupillary dilation
Nystagmusrhythmic oscillations
ODoculus dextra (R eye)
OSoculus sinister (L eye)
OUoculus uterque in each eye
papilledemaswelling of optic disc
PERRLAPupils Equal Round & Reactive to Light & Accommodation
Photophobiaabnormally sensitive to light
Pterygiumhypertrophied bulbar conjunctiva
Ptosisdropping of eyelid (Horner Syndrome)
Strabismuscrossed eyes or squint
Pars flaccidaabove the Umbo; proximal to short process of malleus
Pars tensaBelow the Umbo
Conductive Hearing Lossproblem hearing faint sounds due to loss of ability to conduct sound waves
Otalgiapain in the ear
Otitis externainflammation/infection of the external ear canal
Otitis internainflammation/infection of the internal ear (a.k.a. labyrinthitis)
Otitis mediainflammation/infection of the middle ear
Tinnitusringing in the ears
Vertigodizziness; “the room is spinning”
Anosmialoss of absence of sense of smell
Epistaxisbleeding from nasal passages; “nosebleed”
Polyps (nasal)hyper-proliferation of the nasal mucosa
Rhinitisinflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
Rhinorrheanasal discharge
Sinusitisinflammation of the nasal sinuses
Aphthous stomatitis“canker sore”
Cariesnecrotic areas of the teeth; “cavity”
Cheilitisinflammation and cracking of the skin of the lips
Gingival hyperplasiaproliferation of the gums
Hematemesisvomiting blood
Hemoptysiscoughing up blood
Leukoplakiawhite discoloration of mucus membranes secondary to chronic irritation
Stomatitisinflammation of the mucus membranes of the mouth
Thrushyeast infection of the mouth with thick white plaques
Dysphagiadifficulty swallowing
Laryngitisinflammation of the larynx causing loss of voice or hoarseness
Odynophagiapainful swallowing
Goiterenlargement of thyroid gland
Torticollisabnormally rotated neck; “wry neck”
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Respiration

Question Answer
Vesicular soundssoft and low pitched sounds heard through inspiration & continue w/out pausing through expiration and fade away about 1/3 of the way through expiration
Adventitious soundsadded sounds that you normally don’t hear – superimposed on the usual breath sounds
Fremituspalpable vibrations transmitted through the bronchopulmonary tree to the chest wall as Px is speaking.
Apneaabsence of breathing
Asthmainflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by reversible airway obstruction
Bradypneaslow breathing (usually <8 breaths per minute in an adult)
Bronchitisinflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane causing coughing
Costochondritispainful inflammation of the sternal rib articulation
Cracklescrackling, clicking, bubbling, or rattling sound in the lungs; see also rales
Dyspneadifficulty breathing
Embolism (pulmonary)obstruction or occlusion of a pulmonary artery by an embolus(i.e., blood clot)
Emphysemachronic condition of the lungs where the alveoli are damaged and enlarged causing decreased lung capacity
Hemoptysiscoughing up blood
Orthopneadifficulty breathing lying down/able to breathe only when upright
Pleurisyinflammation of the pleura resulting in painful respirations
Pneumoniainflammation of the lung alveoli due to an infection that causes pus to accumulate in an area or areas of the lung
Ralescrackling, clicking, bubbling, or rattling sounds in the lungs; see also crackles
Tachypnearapid breathing (usually >20 breaths per minute in an adult)
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Cardio

Question Answer
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm; “Triple A”
Anginasevere chest pain caused by inadequate blood supply to the heart
Arrhythmiairregular heartbeat, it is the interruption of a heart rhythm
Bradycardiaslow heart rate (<60 BPM in an adult)
Bruitsmurmur-like sound of vascular origin
Cyanosisbluish discoloration of the skin, lips, tongue or nail beds due to deficient oxygenation
Hypertensionhigh blood pressure
Hypotensionlow blood pressure
Ischemiadecrease or lack of blood supply to an organ or part due to a constriction or obstruction of blood vessels
JVDjugular venous distension
JVPjugular venous pressure
Lymphangitisinflammation of lymph vessels leading to erythema and swelling
Lymphedemapainless swelling secondary to obstructed lymph vessels
Palpitationsirregular heartbeat felt in chest or neck
Pericarditisinflammation of the pericardium
PMIpoint of maximal cardiac impulse palpable on chest wall
Pulsus alternansregular rhythm combined with alternating force of arterial pulse; usually indicative of left-sided heart failure
Pulsus paradoxusparadoxical pulse; greater than normal drop in systolic pressure during inspiration
Tachycardiarapid heart rate (>100 BPM in an adult)
Thrillhumming vibration of vascular origin
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