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Oncology

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eesohbel's version from 2015-07-20 12:03

Disease Conditions Associated with Neoplasms

Question Answer
actinic keratosisprecursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
dermato and polymyositispredispose to visceral malignancies, particularly genitourinary
dysplastic nevusprecursor to malignant melanoma
multiple seborrheic keratosesGI, breast, lung and lymphoid malignancies
Paget disease of boneosteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
Plummer Vinsonsquamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
Tuberous sclerosimultiple hamartomas (benign tumors) including giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipomas, cardiac rhabdomyomas
xeroderma pigmentosumpredisposes to squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma
Down syndromeALL and AML
Li-Fraumenip53 mutation predisposes to various cancer types at a young age
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Carinogens

Question Answer
aflatoxinsHCC
alkylating agentsleukemia/lymphoma
alcoholsquamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and upper esophagus and HCC
arsenicsquamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung and angiosarcoma of liver
asbestoslung carcinoma and mesothelioma. MORE likely to lead to lung cancer
cigarette smokecarcinoma of oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney, bladder and pancreas
nitrosaminesstomach carcinoma (intestinal type)
vinyl chlorideangiosarcoma of liver
nickel, chromium, beryllium or silicalung carcinoma
carbon tetracholridefatty change of the liver
ionizing radiationpapillary thyroid carcinoma
radonlung cancer (2nd leading cause after cigarette smoke)
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Oncogenic Viruses

Question Answer
EBVnasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt lymphoma and CNS lymphoma in AIDS
HHV-8Kaposi sarcoma
HBV and HCVHCC
HTLV-1adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma
high risk HPVsquamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, anus and cervix
H-Pylorigastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma
liver flukechloangiocarcinoma
schistosomabladder cancer (squamous cell)
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Radiation

Question Answer
ionizingAML, CML, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
nonionizingbasal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma of skin
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Oncogenes

Question Answer
BRAFmelanoma (protein kinase)
PDGFBasytocytoma (RTK)
HER2breast cancer (RTK)
RETMEN2A, MEN2B and sporadic medullary carcinoma of thyroid (RTK)
KITGI stromal tumor (RTK)
RAScarcinomas, melanomas, lymphoma (cytoplasmic GTPase)
t(9;22) with BCR-ABLCML and some types of ALL (cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase)
t(8;14)Burkitt lymphoma
c-mycBurkitt lymphoma (transcription factor)
c-junetranscription factor
t(11; 14)mantel cell lymphoma
cyclin D1mantle cell lymphoma (drives cell cycle from G1 to S)
EGFRlung cancer (RTK)
JAK2polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia (cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase)
VEGFangiogenesis (RTK), preclampsia
PI3kinaseserine threonine kinase (cytoplasmic) lung cancer association.
BCL2anti-apoptotic not specific to any one cancer
n-mycneuroblastoma
l-mycsmall cell carcinoma of the lung
RetMEN
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Immunohistochemical stains

Question Answer
keratinepithelium
vimentinmesenchyme
desminmuscle
GFAPneuroglia
neurofilamentneurons
PSAprostatic epithelium
ERbreast epithelium
thyroglobulinthyroid follicular cells
chromograninneuroendocrine cells
s-100melanoma, schwannoma and langerhans cell histiocytosis
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Tumor markers

Question Answer
AFPHCC, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma
HCGtrophoblastic tumors
calcitoninmedullary carcinoma of the thyroid
CEAcarcinomas of the lung, pancreas, stomach, breast and colon
CA 125epithelial tumors of the ovary
CA 19-9pancreatic adenocarcinoma
chromogranin Aneuroendocrine tumors
PLAPseminoma
PSAprostate cancer
ALPmetastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, seminoma (placental ALP)
calcitoninmedullary thyroid carcinoma
PSAprostate cancer
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Metastases

Question Answer
gastric cancers metastasizes to what nodeVirchow's node (left supraclavicular node)
cancers that spread to the right supraclavicular nodebreast, lung, neck and mediastinal cancers
lytic lesionsmultiple myeloma
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Oncogenes, gain of function increases cancer risk. need damage to only 1 allele.

Question Answer
number of damaged oncogene alleles needed to increase cancer risk1
abl cancerCML
abl gene producttyrosine kinase
c-myc cancerBrukitt's lymphoma
c-myc gene producttranscription factor
bcl-2 tumorfollicular and undifferentiated lymphoma
bcl-2 gene productanti-apoptotic molecule
HER2/neu tumorbreast, ovarian and gastric carcinomas
HER2/neu gene producttyrosine kinase
ras tumorcolon carcinoma
ras productGTPase
L-myc tumorlung tumor
L-myc producttranscription factor
N-myc tumorneuroblastoma
N-myc producttranscription factor
ret tumorMEN 2A and 2B
ret producttyrosine kinase
c-kit tumorgastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
c-kit productcytokine receptor
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Tumor suppressor genes. loss of function. both alleles must be lost to cause expression

Question Answer
number of damaged tumor suppressor gene alleles necessary to express disease2
Rb tumorretinoblastoma, ostersarcoma
Rb productinhibits E2F; blocks G1 to S phase
p53 tumormost cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome
p53 producttranscription factor for p21, blocks G1 to S phase
BRCA1 tumorbreast and ovarian cancer
BRCA1 productDNA repair protein
BRCA2 tumorbreast and ovarian cancer
BRCA2 productDNA repair protein
p16 cancermelanoma
BRAF tumormelanoma
BRAF productB-raf
APC tumorcolorectal cancer (associated with FAP)
WT1 tumorWilms' tumor (nephroblastoma)
NF1 tumorneurofibromatosis type 1
NF1 productRAS GTPase activating protein (RAS-GAP)
NF2 tumornerofibromatosis type 2
NF2 productmerlin (schwannomin) protein
DPC4 tumorpancreatic cancer
DCC tumorcolon cancer
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Oncogene vs. tumor suppressor genes

Question Answer
abloncogene
c-myconcogene
bcl-2oncogene
HER2/neu (c-erbB2)oncogene
rasoncogene
L-myconcogene
N-myconcogene
retoncogene
c-kitoncogene
RbTumor suppressor gene
p53Tumor suppressor gene
BRCA1Tumor suppressor gene
BRCA2Tumor suppressor gene
p16Tumor suppressor gene
BRAFTumor suppressor gene
APCTumor suppressor gene
WT1Tumor suppressor gene
NF1Tumor suppressor gene
NF2Tumor suppressor gene
DPC4Tumor suppressor gene
DCCTumor suppressor gene
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