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OMM Ch 8 - 10

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mhewett's version from 2016-07-16 14:19

Ch8 Innervations and Neural Connections

What are the three parts of a spinal reflex? (1) Afferent limb (sensory input) (2) Central limb (spinal pathway) (3) Efferent limb (motor pathway)
What type of reflex occurs when localized visceral stumuli produce a reflex via same-segment somatic efferents? Viscero-somatic
What type of reflex occurs when localized stimuli produce a reflex response via same-segment visceral elements? Somato-viscero
What type of reflex occurs when psychic stimuli such as stress, anxiety, depression, etc. produce a reflex response in various organs whose innervation is received, at least in part, from the brain? Psycho-visceral
What type of reflex occurs when psychic stimuli such as stress, anxiety, depression, etc. produce a reflex response in various somatic structures whose innervation is received, at least in part, from the brain? Psychosomatic
What type of reflex occurs when localized somatic stimuli produce a reflex response in somatic structures whose innervation is derived from the same segment? Somato-somatic
What type of reflex occurs when localized visceral stimuli produce a reflex response in visceral structures whose innervation is derived from the same segment? Viscero-visceral
Which of the splanchnics supplies the upper GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division? Greater splanchnic n; Celiac ganglion
Which of the splanchnics supplies the middle GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division? Lesser splanchnic n; Superior mesenteric ganglion
Which of the splanchnics supplies the lower GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division? Least splanchnic n; Inferior mesenteric ganglion
What are the six different somatic structures? (1) Bones (2) Joints (3) Skeletal muscle (4) Connective tissue (5) Vasculature (6) Lymphatics

Ch9 Visceral and Systemic Considerations

Question Answer
What are the attachments of the diaphragm?(1) Xiphoid process (2) Lower six ribs (3) L1-3
What nerve innervates the diaphragm? What are its nerve roots?Phrenic n; C3-5
What is often the first step in the actual manipulation of any systemic dysfunction?Treat the cause of dysfunction/facilitation
What is usually the second step in the manipulation of any systemic dysfunction?Reduce the sympathetic contribution
What is usually the third step in the manipulation of any systemic dysfunction?Address lymphatics
What is usually the fourth step in the manipulation of any systemic dysfunction?Improve parasympathetic balance
What is the primary manipulative method to moderate hypersympathetic activity?Rib raising (also improves diaphragmatic action, which helps lymphatics)
What collateral ganglion supplies the stomach and duodenum?Celiac ganglion
What collateral ganglion supplies the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and spleen?Celiac ganglion
What collateral ganglion supplies the ascending and proximal transverse colon?Superior mesenteric ganglion
What collateral ganglion supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands, as well as the gonads?Superior mesenteric ganglion
What collateral ganglion supplies the distal transverse and descending colon?Inferior mesenteric ganglion
Which of the splanchnics supplies the upper GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division?Greater splanchnic n; Celiac ganglion
Which of the splanchnics supplies the middle GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division?Lesser splanchnic n; Superior mesenteric ganglion
Which of the splanchnics supplies the lower GI? What collateral ganglion is associate with this division?Least splanchnic n; Inferior mesenteric ganglion
What collateral ganglion supplies the heart, head, and neck?Cervical ganglia
What nerve roots are supplied by the superior cervical ganglion? Middle cervical ganglion? Inferior cervical ganglion?C1-4; C5-6; C7-T1
_____ are a system of reflex points that present as predictable anterior and posterior fascial tissue texture abnormalities assumed to be reflections of visceral dysfunction or pathology.Chapman's points
True or False: Chapman's assesment is preformed after manipulation of the sympathetic pathways.False; Chapman's assessment is actually preformed BEFORE any manipulation has been done that would alter sympathetic pathways.
Generally, is it anterior or posterior Chapman's points that are used for diagnostic purposes? Which are used for treatment?Anterior; Posterior
What is the primary exception to the rule of not treating anterior Chapman's points?Anterior tibial band Chapman's points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ have a characteristic pain pattern.Trigger points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ are located only in muscle tissue.Trigger points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ have a radiating pain pattern.Trigger points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ have no pain pattern.Tender points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ are located in muscles, tendons, and ligaments.Tender points
In comparing trigger and tender points it is important to remember that _____ have no radiating pain pattern.Tender points
What are the four most common treatments of trigger points?(1) Vapocoolant spray and stretch (2) Focal anesthetic injection (3) Muscle energy (4) Myofascial release
What is the most common site for obstructed lymphatic flow?Cerviothoracic diaphragm (Sibson's fascia)
What are the three anatomic components of the thoracic inlet?(1) T1 (2) First rib (3) Sternal manubrium
What are the three functions components of the thoracic inlet?(1) T1-4 (2) Ribs 1 and 2 (3) Sternal manubrium
When performing the thoracic lymphatic pump, what type of pressure does the tx engage?strong negative intrathoracic pressure
With the pedal pump, dorsiflexion aids what regions?lumbar and lumbosacral regions
With the pedal pump, plantar flexion aids what regions?thoracic, cervical, rib area
Splenic pump is used in patients withsystemic infections and/or anemia
Liver pump aids inoverall detoxification process
80% of people have what compensatory pattern?CCP-common compensatory pattern (L-R-L-R)
memorize

Ch10 Craniosacral Principles

Question Answer
What motions of the SBS that are often considered to be physiologic?(1) Flexion/extension (2) Torsion (3) Sidebending/Rotation
What motions of the SBS that are always considered to be pathologic?(1) Vertical strain (2) Lateral strain (3) Compression
Who is the founder of osteopathy in the cranial field (OCF)?William Sutherland
What are the five anatomic and physiologic components of the primary respiratory mechanism (PRM)?(1) Mobility of the cranial and spinal membranes (2) Fluctuant CSF (3) Motility of the CNS (4) Mobility of the cranial bone articulations (5) Involuntary mobility of the sacrum
What are the four dural attachments?(1) Foramen magnum (2) C2 (3) C3 (4) S2
Since the dura is inelastic and is attached to the cranial bones, any motion of the dura will influence the cranial bones. Therefore, the meninges will act as an inelastic rope causing the cranial bones to move in response to the motility of the CNS, and fluctuation of the CSF. Sutherland called this "inelastic rope" the _____.Reciprocal tension membrane (RTM)
Does the dura attach to the anterior or posterior portion of the sacrum? Is it superior or inferior?Posterior; Superior
What sacral transverse axis is associated with the cranial primary respiratory mechanism?Superior
What is the key articulation in the crainal field?Sphenobasilar synchondrosis (SBS)
What is considered to be a normal cranial rhythm impulse?10-14 cycles/minute
How do the midline bones move around their respective axes in SBS flexion? Paired bones?Flexion; Externally rotate
How does craniosacral flexion affect the anterioposterior diameter of the cranium? Width of the cranium?Decreases; Increases
How does the sarcum move in SBS flexion?Extension/posterior (counternutation)
How do the midline bones move around their respective axes in SBS extension? Paired bones?Extension; Internally rotate
How does craniosacral extension affect the anterioposterior diameter of the cranium? Width of the cranium?Increases; Decreases
How does the sarcum move in SBS extension?Flexion/anterior (nutation)
What type of craniosacral motion is associated with twisting of the SBS whereby the sphenoid and other anterior carnial structures rotate in one direct while the occiput and other posterior cranial structures rotate in the opposite direction?Torsion
How do you name a craniosacral torsion?Named for the greater wing of the sphenoid that is more superior
How do you name a craniosacral sidebending/rotation?Named for the side of convexity
What type of craniosacral motion occurs when the sphenoid and occiput rotate in the same directions on an AP axis and sidebend away from each other on bilateral vertical axes?Sidebending/Rotation
What type of craniosacral motion occurs when the sphenoid moves cephalad or caudad with respect to the occiput?Vertical strain
What type of craniosacral motion occurs when the sphenoid moves laterally with respect to the occiput?Lateral strain
What type of craniosacral motion occurs when the sphenoid and occiput are pushed together?Compression
What type of craniosacral motion can result in a severly depressed cranial rhythmic impulse (CRI)?Compression
What cranial nerves are affected by sphenoid bone dysfunction?CNI-VII
What cranial nerves are affected by frontal bone dysfunction and ethmoid bone dysfunction?CNI
Describe the placement of the index fingers, middle fingers, ring fingers, and little fingers during a vault hold.Index: Greater wing of the sphenoid; Middle: Squamous portion of temporal bone; Ring: Mastoid process; Little: Squamous portion of occiput
What cranial nerves are affected by occiput dysfunction?CN II, VII-XII
What cranial nerves are NOT affected by temporal bone dysfunction?CN I, II, XII
What craniosacral technique enhances the amplitude of the cranial rhythmic impulse (CRI)?Bulb decompression (CV4)
What craniosacral technique is used to modulate SBS strains by balancing membranous tensions?Vault hold
What craniosacral technique seperates restricted or impacted sutures?V spread
What are the three absolute contraindications to craniosacral treatment?(1) Skull fracture (2) Intracranial blood (3) Increased intracranial pressure
What dysfunction exists if the greater wings of the sphenoid are inferior and anterior bilaterally?Flexion
What dysfunction exists if the greater wing of the sphenoid is inferior on the right and superior on the left and the occiput is inferior on the right and superior on the left?Right sidebending/rotation
What dysfunction exists if the greater wing of the sphenoid is superior on the left and inferior on the right and the occiput is inferior on the left and superior on the right?Left torsion
What dysfunction exists if the occiput is superior and medial bilaterally?Extension
What dysfunction exists if the right eye is receded and the left eye is prominent and the right ear is prominent and the left ear is very close to the head?Right sidebending/rotation
What dysfunction exists if the right eye is prominent and the left eye is receded and the right ear is prominents and the left ear is very close to the head?Right torsion
What dysfunction exists if the eyes are prominent bilaterally and the ears are prominent bilaterally?Flexion
What dysfunction exists if the eyes are receded bilaterally and the ears are close the the head bilaterally?Extension
What dysfunction exists if the palate is high and narrow bilaterally and the orbits are now bilaterally?Extension
What dysfunction exists if the left temporal bone is externally rotated while the right temporal bone is internally rotated?Left sidebending/rotation OR Left torsion
What dysfunction exists if the left temporal bone is externally rotated while the right temporal bone is internally rotated and the left mastoid is positioned posteriomedially?Left sidebending/rotation OR Left torsion
What dysfunction exists if the left temporal bone is externally rotated while the right temporal bone is internally rotated and the left mastoid is positioned posteriomedially and the left eye is receded?Left sidebending/rotation
What dysfunction exists if temporal bones are internally rotated blilaterally?Extension
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