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Olfaction & Gustation

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imissyou419's version from 2016-12-10 22:27

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Question Answer
Olfactionsmell
Olfaction pathwayOdorant molecules attach to olfactory epithelium, olfactory cilia @ bottom of olfactory neuron receives odorant molecules and transfer signal through olfactory neuron to cribiform plate, glomeruli is where olfactory neurons and mitral cells meet, mitral cells transfer olfactory signals to different parts of brain through olfactory tract (axons of mitral cells) -> olfactory cortex (insular)
Support cells in olfactory pathwayssupport cells support olfactory neurons (nourish, provide myelination, metabolism, homeostasis), basal cells are depeest layer of epidermis, bowman's gland helps with mucuous secretion to help odorant molecules stick to olfactory cilia
coding for olfactioneach nerve has an affinity to 1 specific odorant, the different affinities create different activation patterns which results in unique odorant profiles; odorant nerves with similiar affinities converge at 1-2 glomeruli, different odorants activate different sets of glomeruli patterns
piriform cortexidentifies odour
amygdalaemotional/social behaviour
entorhinal cortex + hippocampussmell memory
thalamus -> orbitofrontal cortexodor perception (analysis & comparison)
anterior commissureconnection to contralateral bulb
Anosmialoss of smell or inability to perceive odours; caused by temporary - nasal congestion, permanent - brain injury, congenital, might result in hypoguesia
Hypoguesialoss of taste
convergence of olfaction and gustationconvergence at insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex
Gustationtaste
cranial nerves related to gustationanterior 2/3 of tongue - facial nerve, posterior 1/3 of tongue - glossopharyngeal nerve, epiglottis - vagus nerve
morphology of the 4 tongue papillaefrom posterior to anterior - circumVallate papillae, foliate papillae, fungiform papillae, filiform papillae (no taste buds)
taste buds locationtongue, epiglottis, larynx, pharynx, cheeks, lips
Taste poreopening in tongue epithelium
Gustatory epithelial cellsactivate associated nerve fibers related to gustation
Support cells for gustationsupport, basal cells
Each taste cell is most sensitive to 1 of 5 tastes:bitter, sweet, sour, salty, unami
Taste bud theories1. each taste cell is specialized. 2. Each cell detects all 5 taste sensations. 3. multiple afferents per specialized cell (theres some afferent nerves for sweet even though most for sour)
Taste pathwayTaste pore -> gustatory epithelial cells -> Taste fibers of vagus, glossopharyngeal, facial -> solitary nucleus in medulla oblongata -> VPN -> gustatory cortex (insula)
memorize

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