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OCR GCSE HISTORY MODERN WORLD PAPER 2 WOMEN

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niliwolu's version from 2017-01-10 18:33

Section 1

Question Answer
What did Victorians believe that a woman's role was?Was as a wife and a mother. As a wife, her duty was to obey her husband and do everything she could to make his life as easy as possible. The education that girls received enforced this view.
Working class women?Before 1870, most working-class girls did not go to school. A system of state schools was set up in 1870, and in 1880 it was made compulsory for all children between the ages of five and ten to attend. By 1900, 97% of all children could read and write.
Working-class women jobs?Nearly all working class women would have to go out to work as they needed the money. One in three had been a domestic servant at some time in their life. Many women worked at home, or in small workshops, sewing or making matchboxes and candles and many others still worked in textile factories.
Towards the end of the 19th Century?Towards the end of the 19th Century new jobs were appearing. There were jobs in many new shops that were opening, as well as jobs as typists and on telephone switchboards. Only the luckiest would get one of those jobs and the hours were long (an 80-hour week in shops). Women often had to leave when they married, and they were paid a great deal less than men doing similar jobs.
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Section 2

Question Answer
Middle and Upper Class Women?Girls from richer families were often educated at home by a governess. The main aim of their education was to make them good wives and mothers. They were taught music, singing and drawing - things that would make them appealing for a future husband. They would starve themselves and use corsets to achieve their tiny waists, as men thought this was feminine. In a sense,women were just ornaments for men.
How were middle class girls given more freedom?In the latter half of the 19th century, many did attend school, but it was very difficult for women to go on to higher education or to train for professions like medicine and law. Womens colleges had opened at Oxford and Cambridge, but women still could not be awarded degrees. Several teacher training colleges for women had also opened.
New employment opportunities for middle class women?Teaching - but they had to be single. Nursing - but they had to resign when they got married. Clerical work like typists. Women got paid less than men.
Position of women in marriage in the middle of the 19th Century?Inferior. They became the property of their husbands, as did their property. Husbands could rape and batter wives and it was virtually impossible for women to instigate a divorce.
Improvements for womens rights by 1900?Women were allowed to keep their own property after they married. Women could bring divorce cases against their husbands for things like crelty and bigoty. A woman no longer had to stay in her husband's home against her will.
What was still legal though?Wife battering and marital rape. If a divorce did occur, the mother would lose all rights to her children
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Section 3

Question Answer
What were the two main organisations that were campaigning for the vote for women?The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS/Suffragettes). The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU/Suffragettes)
Arguments for giving women the vote - inequalities?Women were unequal to men in many ways. Some women believed that the only way to change these inequalities was to get the vote, as they could then put pressure on Parliament to change other laws. Laws could be passed giving women equal pay and equal rights. Some women also believed it would get rid of prostitution as if women earned more they might not have to resort to prostitution.
arguments for giving women the ovte - improve mens sexual behaviourOne of the slogans of the WSPU was 'Votes for women and chastity for men'. Some suffragettes like Christabel Pankhurst thought giving women the vote would help improve mens sexual behaviour. They thought that makign women equal to men would make men follow women's much higher moral standards and get rid of things like veneral disease and prostitution.
arguments for women getting the vote - they are capableMany people at this time believed in 'separate spheres' - women should stay at home in the private sphere and look after children and men were better suited to the public sphere of work and politics. Many women had begun challenging this idea and become active in politics in lots of ways. Some women were allowed to vote in local elections, and in 1907 this was extended to all female rate payers.
arguments for giving women the vote - there have been changes in womens roles.Through new types of jobs like teaching, more women were going out to work. Women were also going to university and becoming doctors. Women were becoming more active in public roles so were beginning to destroy the idea of separate spheres.
Arguments for giving women the vote other countriesBritain was falling behind other countries. By 1914, many women in the USA had the vote, as well as in other countries such as New Zealand. Why not Britain?
arguments for giving women the vote - voting is a 'right' to which women are entitled.A mans right to vote was based on property qualifications. Some women owned more property then some men did, and paid more rates and taxes, yet were not allowed to vote. Why should an uneducated, lliterate farm worker get the vote when the femal landowner he works for can't.
arguments for women getting the vote - democracyBritain could not claim to be a democratic country if half of its adult population did not have the vote.Other people banned from voting included criminals and the certified insane.it was absurd to put women in this category.
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Section 4

Question Answer
Arguments against giving women the vote - separate spheresMany women did not know anything about the nature of their husband's jobs or their opinions on major political issues. They appeared to be totally absorbed in their domestic lives. Opponents to votes for women thought that separate spheres had been ordained by God and were convinced that family life would be destroyed if women won the vote. It was believed at the time that women were guided by their womb rather than their brain. They were more prone to hysteria (explaining the suffragettes actions) and were seen as childish, bad-tempered and fickle because of their reproductive cycle. Women were inferior to men because their brain weighed less.
Against the vote - they don't want itWomen had no interest in public affairs. Only a fraction of women joined the various suffrage organisations. Convinced that the suffragettes were mad, frustrated spinsters while normal women were happy to stay at home and look after their husbands and children.
Against the vote - husbandsWomen were already represented by their husbands. Wives were expected to have the same political views as their husbands - it would be like giving the husband two votes.
Against the vote - women's role is in local affairs.Thought they should be active citizens by contributing to the community, not voting. Women's involvement as Poor Law Guardians and on school boards was ok because it was an extension of the domestic role but not voting.
Against the vote - dangerous to change a system that works.Making a big change like giving women the vote could effect the stability of the system. It was too big a risk to take.
Against - women don't fight.People earned the right to vote by being willing to fight for their country. As women could not fight in the army and navy, they didn't deserve the vote. There was also a worry that if women got the vote they would not want Britain to fight wars and, as a reuslt, Britain's place in the world would decline.
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Section 5

Question Answer
Start of the suffragists1897 Millicent Fawcett linked many of the different women's organisations in the NUWSS. By 1914 it had over 100,000 members.
Class of the women in the suffragistsMany were middle class and were involved in other women's rights issues, e.g. improving the rights of married women. However, they did have working class members, and men were allowed to join, and some did.
Start of the suffragettes.The WSPU was founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her two daughters Christabel and Sylvia in 1903.
1905, Christabel PankhurstIn 1905, Christabel Pankhurst and another lady began shouting 'will women get the vote' at a meeting of the Liberal Party. Christabel spat in a policeman's face and hit him in the mouth. Given the choice between a fine and 7 days imprisonment. Went to prison. When released crowd of 2000 welcomed her.
men and suffragistsMen not allowed to join. 1906 moved headquarters to London and then recruited mainly middle-class people and n. of working class members fell.
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Section 6

Question Answer
1906Liberal Landslide victory. PM, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, supports votes for women but ministers are divided
Late 1908Split between gists and gettes forms. Suffragits are worried that the suffragettes violent actions are making the Government hostile to votes for women
1910Suffragettes call off violent protests when Asquith agrees to meet with them and the suffragettes produce a conciliation bill giving women the vote
1911Government announces it's dropping the concilliation bill
1912Hunger strikes in prisons - authorities respons by force feeding
1913 Cat and Mouse Act
1914WW1 begins and suffragists and gettes stop campaigning to focus on war effort
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Section 7

Question Answer
PropogandaWSPU published a newspaper called 'Votes for Women' which argued the case and gave the suffragettes great publicity. BY 1914 it had a circulation of 40,000. The suffragettes slogan 'Votes for Women' was found everywhere. They used their colours of purple, white and green to sell clothes, dolls, jewellery, etc.
Meetings and DemonstrationsAs demonstrations grew larger numbers of 20,000 were not unusual. The NUWSS Women's Pilgrimage in 1913 was a great success, with thousands of women taking part and the newspapers reporting the event very favourably because of the peacefu way in which it was carried out.
Pressure on ParliamentThe petition in 1910 in support of the Conciliation Bill got over 250,000 signatures
Civil disobedienceMany women refused to pay tax, and some also boycotted the 1911 census.
Attacking propertyThey smashed windows, and in 1913 Emily Davidson planted a bomb at Lloyd George's house in Surrey. They burned messages like 'no votes, no golf' into golf courses with acid.
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Section 8

Question Answer
1909 Hunger StrikesStarted in 1909 as a way to make the authorities recognise that they were political prisoners rather than just ordinary criminals. Hunger strikes won sympathy for the prisoners
suffragettes thought that peaceful methods were not having a lot of successThe government banned them from meeting so peaceful protest was denied them. Government started to use violence against them.
was violence effective?Violence turned the public and the liberal government against votes for women. Also allowed opponents to argue that violence meant that women were not responsible enough to get the vote. But women had been working peacefully for the vote for many years but had been ignored. Violence made front page news.
was asquith in favourpm asquith was definetly against the idea.
how did the government deal with protesters?The government dealth with protesters harshly, even before violence was used. This suggests that it was hostile from the beginning and its harsh actions were not just a result of the suffragettes violence.
reaction of the presssome newspapers like the times were totally against the idea of women getting the vote. They reported opinions biasedly. Behaviour said to be a result of hysteria. Not all newspapers against though but they couldn't condone violence.
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Section 9

Question Answer
Yes, the violent methods helpedMade female suffrage front page news. Once the issue had been raised and had gained so much publicity it was not going away. As time passed people were gradually getting used to the idea - it was not so strange. Asquith was already firmly against the idea, so the violent methods did not make things worse.
No, the violent methods didn't help.Violence played into the hands of the government and gave them an excuse. Governmetn could not be seen to be giving in to violence.Violence turned moderate men, especially moderate MPs, against the idea of votes for women. Violence supported the view that women were not responsible enough to get the vote. In 1913 and 1914, the NUWSS was growing in popularity at the expense of the WSPU. Some women were turning away from violence.
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Section 10

Question Answer
war 1914Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst had no hesitation in stopping the suffrage campaign and encouraging members to support the war effort.
reason got votein 1918 women may have been given the vote as a reward for their war work - others think women were close to getting it in 1914 and the war actually held up them getting the vote.
womens right to serve marchin 1915 the wspu organised the womens right to serve march. the suffragette leaders became more patriotic than many men. They renamed their paper britannia. they demanded that military conscription be introduced and went arund giving out white feathers.
millicent fawcettsupported war effort bt opposed conscription and the giving of white feathers. NUWSS kept pressure on Parliament for the vote. organised an employment register for women to replace men who had gone fighting.
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Section 11

Question Answer
why did women get the vote linked to war menPreparations for reform started in 1916. This was mainly because thousands of men who had volunteered to go and fight for their country had lost their right to vote, as they were away from home for over a year.Millicent Fawcett and the NUWSS put pressure on the government to include women in this reform. All men over the age of 21 were given the vote and women over 30 were given the vote as well as being able to become MPs.
why not all women?government worried about there being more women voters than men. worried about young women being 'flighty' and not responsible enough to have the vote.
why to do with war did they get the vote?Need for reform anyway because of soldiers who had lost the right to vote because they had been away fighting. War gave MPs a convenient excuse to give up their opposition. They could change their minds without looking stupid. Many men were genuinely impressed by women's contribution to the war effort.They had shown that they were mature and sensible, and were capable of doing most jobs. One of the argument against giving women the vote was that they could not take part in the defence of their country. This argument had been destroyed.
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