robbypowell's version from 2016-06-05 17:59


Question Answer
T/F: Insulin is anabolicTrue
T/F: Insulin is catabolicFalse
T/F: There is no Kreb's cycle in RBC'sTrue (no mitochondria)
Muscles rely on ____ for energy most of the timeFatty Acids (Gluconeogenesis)
what is the primary site for FA cholesterol synthesis?Liver
in protein metabolism... which vitamin is necessary for transamination?B6
synthesis of urea is done where?liver
excretion of urea is done where?kidney
elevated BUN means ____ disease or damageKIDNEY (blood-urea-nitrogen)
elevated NH4+ typically means ____ disease or damageLIVER
Peripheral tissues will send nitrogen to liver via what two amino acids?glutamine or alanine.
Transamination of glutamine or alanine requires vitamin ____ aka ____ ____vit B6; aka Pyridoxal Phosphate
males usually have more uric acid than females because of the anabolic hormone ____testosterone

errors of metabolism

Question Answer
defect in phenylalanine hydroxylasePhenylketonuria
defect in homogentisate oxidaseAlkaptonuria
defect in branched chain amino acid DHMaple Syrup Urine Disease
autosomal recessive disease where Treatment requires low phenylalanine diet until adolescence or so; Lack of treatment results in severe mental retardationPhenylketonuria
List the Essential Amino AcidsArg, Lys, His, Phe, Trp, Ile, Leu, Val, The, & Met
serotonin's precursor AA...Tryptophan
Nitric Oxide precursor AAArginine
Thyroid hormone precursor AATyrosine
Dopamine precursor AATyrosine
Epinephrine & norepinephrine precursor AATyrosine


Question Answer
Free glucose is released from liver by what liver-specific enzyme?Glucose-6-Phosphatase
Liver conjugats fatty acids to _____ to be sent to adipose tissue for storageVLDL
Detoxification of xenobiotics is done in the liver via ____ ___ hydroxylationCytochrome P450


Question Answer
smooth muscle lacks _____Troponin
Sarcomere is a segmented of muscle bordered by two ____ linesZ lines
Smooth Muscle lacks troponin; tropomyosin is regulated with a calcium/ calmodulin (CaCM) regulated protein called ____caldesmon
chemical substance that is the immediate source of energy for muscle contraction?Adenosine tri-phosphate
Following exercise, ventilation is in excess of the metabolic requirement. During this period, the level of lactic acid in the blood _____decreases (decrease in blood... increase in muscle)
principal action of insulin?To enhance cell permeability to glucose
Alpha cells in the islands of Langerhans are the source of ____Glucagon
Beta cells in the islands of Langerhans are the source of ____Insulin
Which of the following hormones does NOT induce activation of adenylate cyclase?Insulin
With glutamic acid as an amino group donor, alanine can be synthesized directly from which acid?Pyruvic acid
function of Vitamin B6?transamination rxns
coenzyme for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase is...Pyridoxal Phosphate (aka vit B6)
most immediate
Question Answer
source of oxaloacetic acid during metabolism is ____Aspartic Acid
The level of nonprotein nitrogen in the blood is due principally to the level of _____Urea

lacks or deficiencies... what mutation/disease?

Question Answer
globin deficiencyThalassemia
defective globinSickle-cell Anemia
lack of HGPRTLesch-Nyhan Syndrome
deficiency of HGPRT or xanthine oxidaseGout
lack of lysosomal hexosaminidase ATay Sach's disease
lack of phenylalanine hydroxylasePhenylketonuria
lack of DNA mismatch repair systemXeroderma Pigmentosum
lack of LDL receptorFamilial Hypercholesterolemia
defect in type I collagenOsteogenesis Imperfecta
defect in fibrillin-1 (elastic fibers) and aorta, ligaments and eye are mostly affectedMarfan's Syndrome