robbypowell's version from 2016-05-20 13:36

Humoral Immunology

Question Answer
difference between lymph node and spleen in terms of inputspleen gets input from bloodstream, lymph nodes get input from lymphatics
peripheral immune response is addressed by (lymph nodes/spleen) while systemic immune response is addressed by (lymph node/spleen)Lymph nodes; Spleen
the immune response giving rise to immunoglobulins (define)Humoral Immune Respone
term: coating of an immunogen with antibodies to facilitate phagocytosisOPSONIZATION
T/F: Ab+complement can together destroy pathogens without host cell participationTrue
which T-cells are more associated with production of cytokines (and not cytotoxic response)CD4
which T-cells are most associated with cytotoxic responseCD8

Which Immunoglobulin? (G, A, M, E, D)

Question Answer
First Ig produced in a T cell-dependent responseIgM
Pentamer (huge); primary location serumIgM
2 types of immunoglobulin Membrane-bound Ig on naïve B cellsIgM & IgD (IgM is important one)
Principle serum Ig (with four subtypes, 1-4)IgG
requires a T cell-dependent response (TD)IgG
Good at all fxns (depends on subtype): fixes complement, opsonizer and OK neutralizerIgG
the only Ig class to cross the placentaIgG
the only Ig class to activate NK killingIgG
dimer in excretions, monomer in serum and tissues; Important NEUTRALIZER of pathogensIgA
responsible for immediate-type hypersensitivityIgE
Binds with high affinity to FcεRI on mast cells and basophilsIgE
protects against parasitesIgE
binds with FcαRIgA
binds with FcɣRIgG
binds with FcɛRIgE
we produce more of this Ig than all other classes combinedIgA

innate or adaptive immunity?

Question Answer
Present at all times & works within minutesInnate
"non-discriminatory" / Non-specificInnate
No increase with repeated exposureInnate
Initiated in lymphoid organs and takes days to developAdaptive
Discriminates (clonal selection of antigen-specific lymphocytes)Adaptive
Stronger/faster with repeat exposureAdaptive
Responsible for immunologic memoryAdaptive

Cell-mediated immunity

Question Answer
Cell-mediated immunity is primarily carried out by what type of cells?T cells (CD$ & CD8)
what type of t cells are responsible for chemokine production and training B cells?CD4
what type of t cells are responsible for cytotoxic killing of infected cells?CD8
what are the three broad categories of cells involved in cell-mediated immunityT Lymphocytes (CD4 & CD8), NK cells, & Antigen Presenting cells (Dendritic, macrophages, B lymphocytes)
follicular dendritic cells, unlike other dendritic cells, work with what cells in follicular centers?B cells
what types of molecules act as immunogens of Cell-Mediated response when presented by Antigen Presenting CellsProtein fragments
an example of an intracellular bacteriaMycoplasma
Which cells have MHC Class 1All nucleated cells
diff in structure between MHC Class 1 & 2Class 1 (1 heavy and 1 light) Class 2 (2 heavy)
MHC Class _________ takes small peptides... MHC Class ___ takes large peptides1 --> small; 2 --> large
Intracellular proteins are broken into fragments and go into MHC class ___ for antigen presentationMHC Class 1
Extracellular proteins are broken into fragments and go into MHC class ___ for antigen presentationMHC Class 2
Loading of MHC Class 1 complex with an antigen happens where?in the Golgi Apparatus
HLA-A, HLA-B & HLA-C are what MHC class?Class 1 (a, b, c)
HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR are what MHC class?Class 2 (dp,dq,dr)
How many peptides can MHC Class 1/2 receptors convey at a time?1 peptide at a time (antigen for presentation)
CD4 co-receptor binds to what MHC class?Class 2
CD8 co-receptor binds to what MHC class?Class 1
Which cells express MHC class 1?all nucleated cells
which cells express MHC class 2?mainly Antigen Presenting cells (a few others under inflammatory conditions)
Co-receptor CD4 stabilizes _____ (receptor) binding to MHC Class ___TCR (T cell Receptor); Class 2
Co-receptor CD8 stabilizes _____ (receptor) binding to MHC Class ___TCR (T cell Receptor); Class 1
T lymphocytes are derived from _____ stem cells in bone marrow and leave marrow while still immatureLymphoid
T-lymphocytes complete development in the ____thymus (selected as CD4 or CD8)
T/F: the Thymus is active throughout lifeTrue
Congenitally missing thymus is called _____ syndrome and they cannot make what type of cells?DiGeorge Syndrome; T cells (very few); (also some cardiac and facial development problems)
the order of selection is ____ selection then _____ selectionpositive; negative
the process in the thymus by which thymocytes differentiate into mature T lymphocytesThymopoiesis
perforin and granzymes are associated with what type T cell?CD8 t cells
double positive T lymphocytes (CD4 & CD8) are found where?these are immature T cells (part of maturation steps) IN THYMUS
B cells are activated by the engagement of what cellular receptor?CD40 (CD40L moves to surface of CD4 cell in response to antigen presentation)

graft nomenclature

Question Answer
Tissue donor and recipient are the same individualAutograft
Tissue/organ donor and recipient are genetically identicalSYNGENEIC aka ISOgraft (syngeneic)
Tissue/organ donor and recipient are genetically different individuals of the same speciesALLOgeneic graft aka ALLOgraft
Tissue/organ donor and recipient are individuals of different speciesXENOGENEIC GRAFT aka (XENOGRAFT)
what molecules are the primary antigens driving transplant rejection?Non-self (foreign) MHC molecules
Matches of what MHC class are most important for graft acceptance?match with Class 2 are the most critical
what type of graft would be most successful for mandibular bone graft?Autograft (same)
Hyperacute graft rejection is Mediated by what?pre-existing antibodies in recipient’s circulation
Acute graft rejection is Mediated primarily by what components of immune system?CD8+ T cells (CTL), but CD4+ T cells and Abs may participate
Graft vs Host disease comes from what type of transplant?Bone marrow (when immune cells from transplant attack host)
Immunosuppressants can be used to deal with phenotypic mismatch of what MHC class in tissue graft?MHC Class 1
4 Tissues most affected by GVHD (graft versus host disease)– Oral mucosa, skin, Small intestine, Liver
What type of graft represents the type of maxillofacial bone graft with the BEST chance of success?Allograft
IL-1 is primarily produced by which cell?T-helper cells

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