OBGYN Sonography Quiz

zenugume's version from 2016-11-29 21:05

Section 1

Question Answer
Where are nabothian cysts are located. Cervix
When does corp. luteum cyst regress (with pregnancy?)12 to 16 weeks
What is the most life-threatening ectopic pregnancy?Interstitial
Where is free fluid most common?Posterior cul-de-sac aka pouch of douglas
Most common cause of vaginal bleeding in the 1st trimesterSubchorionic hemorrage
CRL is the most accurate measure within the _______?Through the 12th week of gestation
________ is a localized tumor of endometriosis, most frequently found in the ovary, cul-de-sac, rectovaginal septum and peritoneal surface of the posterior wall of the uterus. Endometrioma
______ is also known as a chocolate cyst.Endometrioma
What US sign is related to a dermoid tumor?Tip of the iceburg
How do you calculate mean sac diameter?(L+D+W/3) Average sum of length, width and height.
Yolk sac should not exceed ___?6mm
An anembryonic pregnancy is also known as a _____?Blighted ovum
A gestational sac in which the embryo fails to develpe or stops developing at such an early stage that it is imperceptible by US.Blighted ovum/Anembryonic pregnancy
As many as 20% of patients with ectopic pregnancy demonstrate an intrauterine saclike structure known as the ___________?Pseudogestational sac
Normal bowel herniation appears sonographically as an echogenic mass at the base of the umbilical cord between ___ and ___ weeks.8 - 11 weeks (book says 8-12)
Triple line is associated with what endometrial phase?Proliferative
What is the most common cause of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester?Subchorionic hemorrhage
What’s another name for a mature follicle? Graafian
At what phase is endometrium thickest?Secretory phase
Opening in abd. wall to the right of umbillical cord where bowel protrudes?Gastroschisis
Congenital hernia of the umbillicus that is covered by a membrane?Omphalocele
Ectopic occurrence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium.Adenomyosis
Condition that occurs when functioning endometrial tissue invades sites outside the uterus.Endometriosis

Section 2

Question Answer
Leiomyoma: displacing or distorting the endometrial cavity with subsequent irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding.Submucosal
Leiomyoma: Confined to the myometrium, the most common type.Intramural
Leiomyoma: Projecting from the peritoneal surface of the uterus.Subserosal
Sometimes subserosal leiomyomas become _______ and appear as extrauterine masses.pedunculated
Fibroids are ____ (hormone type) dependent and can increase in size with ______ (same hormone) stimulationEstrogen

Section 3

Question Answer
Benign condition that results from eestrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin, a frequent cause of bleeding especially in postmenopausal women.Endometrial hyperplasia
What is the most life threatening ectopic pregnancy?Interstitial/corneal
If you have fluid filled tubular structures in your adnexa, the most likely diagnosis is?Hydrosalpinx
An ovary is considered abnormal if volume is ___ the contralateral ovary.Twice
When does the fusion of chorion and amnion occur? 14 - 15 weeks
The yolk sac is located within the ____ cavityChorionic
The most common etiology of PID (2 types)gonorrhea and chlamydia
5 risk factors of PID1.) Early sexual contact 2.) Multiple sexual partners 3.) History of STDs 4.) Previous history of PID 5.) IUDs
What affects the size and shape of a normal uterus (3 things)Age, parity, and hormonal status.
Adult (nulliparous) uterus should be roughly ___ to ___ cm in length?6-8 cm
Adult (parous) uterus should be roughly ___ to ___ cm in length?8-10 cm
A postmenopausal uterus should be roughly ___ to ___ cm in length?3-5 cm
When can a gestational sac be seen transvaginally?
At what hCG level can a gestational sac be consistently demostrated transabdominally?1800 mIU/ml
When can the gestational sac be seen transvaginally?5 weeks
What vessels are in the perphiry of the uterus, what are they called? Arcuate vessels
Endometrial thickness of postmenopausal women. Less than 5mm
Woman age 35 and above are considered infertile after _________ months of trying.6
Woman age 34 and below are considered infertile after _________ months of trying.12
When does the fetal heart beat35 days 5.5 to 6 weeks.
A drug or infections agent known to cause birth defects is classified as _______Teratogenic
The absence of the cranium is called:Acrania
1 in ___ couples in America are effected by infertility7

Section 4

Question Answer
Corp luteum cyst produces ______ and some ________. progestrone and some estrogen
Congenital abnormalities effect approx 1% of women, these are result of a defect in the _____ duct development, fusion, or reabsorption.mullerian
An endometrium must be at least __mm to achieve pregnancy6mm
Evaluation of the endo is particularly important with _______ and IVFinfertility treatment
Hydrosalpinx is associated with a _________% decrease rate in pregnancy as well as _________ times more likely to experience a spontaneous miscarriage.50, 2x
PCOS is highly associated with _____infertility
Dominant follicales can grow at a rate of _ to _mm1 to 3mm
Transabdominal approach requires a full bladder and uses a _________ to _________ MHz trans3.5 to 5 MHz
Transvaginal approach requires an empty bladder and uses a higher frequency transducer of _________ to _________ MHz7.5 to 10 MHz
Dominant follicles reach a mean diameter of _____mm22mm
PCOS often presents with the clinical triad of: (3 things)1.) Oligoamenorrhea, 2.) Hirsutism 3.) Obesity
The fallopian tubes are roughly ___ to ___ cm in length and ___ to ___mm in diameter10-12cm, 1-4mm
Gestational sac size and hCG levels increase proportionately until 10 menstrual weeks10 weeks?
The cystic rhomboid fossa can be routinely imaged sonographically from ___ to ___ weeks (not to be confused for pathology)8 to 11 weeks
What does the "lambda sign" denote?Dichorionic/diamniotic
What does the "t sign" denotemonochorionic/diamniotic.
_____ is/are the only organs in the abdominopelvic cavity not lined by peritoneumovaries
Mittelscherz from the german word meaning ____middle pain
Midcycle dull ache on either side of the lower abdomen lasting hoursMittelscherz
Should conception and implantation occur ____ hormone produced by zygote causes corpus luteum to persisthCG
What is the typical sonographic appearance of a blighted ovum?Large empty gestational sac. yolk sac, amnion and embryo are NOT demonstrated.
Constitutes 60 to 80% of all OVARIAN carcinomasSerous cystadenocarcinoma
Most common cervical cancerSquamous cell
Most common cystic tumor, usually very large.Mucinous Cystadenoma
Most common ovarian neoplasmTeratoma or dermoid tumor
Most common GYN tumor, more common in African American women.Fibroid/leiomyoma
This group accounts for 65% to 75% of all ovarian neoplasms and 80% to 90% of all ovarian malignanciesEpithelial-stromal tumors
Most common GYN malignancy in North AmericaEndometrial carcinoma
Most common clinical symptom of endometrial carcinomaIrregular uterine bleeding.
Most common sonographic finding of endometrial carcinoma is:An abnormally thickened endometrium
Differential considerations for PID (4)Hematoma, dermoid cyst, ovarian neoplasm, endometriosis.
What is the most common cause of ovarian enlargement in young women?Functional ovarian cyst
The ___ test is a serum marker for ovarian cancerCA-125
Blastocyst typically enters uterus _ to _ days after fertilization4 to 5 days
Embryonic phase is between _________ to _________ week6 to 10 weeks

Section 5

Question Answer
Endometrial thickness during menstrual stage.2-3mm
Endometrial thickness during early proliferative stage.4-6mm
Endometrial thickness during periovulatory stage.6-8mm
Endometrial thickness during secretory stage.8-15mm
___ tumors are associated with AFP alpha-fetal proteinGerm-cell