O.Chem Vocab 2

krabi's version from 2015-09-05 22:58

Section Vocab Chapter 2

Question Answer
1,3 DiAxial InteractionInteraction between Axial substituent group w/2 other axial subs (same side of cyclohexane).
Dipole - Dipole Interactionthe interaction beween the dipole of 1 molecule w/the dipole of another molecule.
Eclipsed Conformationshape in which the carbons are lined up parallel, when looking down
Equatorial BondA bond of the chair form of the cyclohexane
EtherA compound ⇒ oxygen is bonded to 2 Alkyl groups (ROR)
Flagpole Hydrogens2 H in the boat shape, closest to each other
Functional Gpcentre of reactivity of a molecule
Gauche Conformerstaggered shae where the largest substituents bonded to 2 carbons are Gauche of each other;w/60 angle.
Half Chairthe least stable shape of cyclehexane
Homologous seriesa family of compounds ⇒ each member differs by one methylene gp.
Hydrogen bonda strong dipole-dipole attraction (5 kcal/molecule); NOF w/LP in NOF
Hyperconjugationdelocalization of electrons (by overlap of sigma bond w/empty orbital).
Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Interactioninteraction between a temporary dipole in one molecule & temp. in another.
Methylene GroupCH2 group
Parent Hydrocarbonlongest continuous carbon chain in a molecule.
Polarizibilityease w/an electron cloud of an atom can be distorted
Primary AlcoholWhere the OH group is bonded to first Carbon
Primary Alkyl HalideAn alkyl halide in which halogen ⇒ bonded to primary carbon
Primary AmineAn amine w/1 alkyl group bonded to the Nitrogen
Primary CarbonA carbon bonded to only one other carbon
Quaternary Ammonium SaltNitrogen compound w/4 alkyl groups ⇒ bonded to Nitrogen
Ring FlipWhen the chair flips back and forth between axial and equatorial shapes.
Sawhorse projectionWay to represent 3-D shapes, by looking at the C-C bond from an oblique bond.
Skeletal structurea structure that shows C-C bond as lines and does show the C-H bonds.
Skew-boat Conformerone of the shapes of the cyclohexane.

Section Quantum Rules

Question Answer
IF the more polar the moleculeTHEN higher the water solubility.
IF single Sigma bond THEN sp3
IF db Pi bondTHEN sp2
IF triple bondTHEN sp (sigma + Pi)
IF spTHEN 180 linear geometry (eg. HCN)
IF sp3THEn 109.5 degrees
IF sp2 THEn 120 degrees, trigonal planar
IF tetrahedralTHEN 109.5 degrees
IF Carbocations/Radicals THEN sp2 half-filled orbitals
IF sp THEN ‘s character’is s-50% a & 50%-p
IF sp2 THEN ‘s character’Character is s-33.3% and p is 66.7%
IF sp3 THEN ‘s character’Character is s-25% and p is 75%

Section Bonding Trends

Question Answer
Why is triple bond stronger than Pi db?Stronger because all 6 electrons are perpendicular to each other
What are water bonds 104.5 degress and not 90?Hybrid orbitals form covalent bonds. Because the 2 lone pairs decrease bond angles by create more electron repulsion and squishing groups together. LP are more diffuse than bonding pairs.
What is the relationship between bond angles and Lone PairsInverse relationship
What is the bonding structure of hydrogen Halide?Always 1 bond w/3 LPs all identical triplets (positioned to minimize e- repulsion); i.e. sp3.
Why is there more ++ electron density in region of overlap in ‘S’ section?Be: as you go down the PT there are more shells, getting far away from Nucleus; i.e. we hold on to e- more loosely!
What is the relationship between H+ Overlap & Halogen Size?Inverse relationship.
What is the implication of bond length and size on Halogens?The HX bond is longer/weaker as atomic weight and size increase. Inverse relationship.
IF more carbon atomsTHEN short & strong C-C bonds
Why is C-H bond strong than C-C?Be: In H+ the s orbital is closer to nucleus than in the carbon. AND, ++ electron density throughout overlap s orbital vs. sp3

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