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Nutrition

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juniperk's version from 2016-11-18 06:12

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Question Answer
What does carbohydrates do?Provide energy. Spare protein so it can be used for other functions. Prevent ketosis from inefficient fat metabolism
What does protein do?required for the formation of all body structures, including genes, enzymes, muscle, bone matrix, skin, and blood. maintain body tissues that break down from normal wear and tear and to support the growth of new tissue.
What does fat do?Provides energy Provides structure Insulates the body Cushions internal organs Necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
What are triglycerides?the predominant form of fat in food and the major storage form of fat in the body
What does Cholesterol do?an important component of cell membranes and is especially abundant in brain and nerve cells. It also is used to synthesize bile acids and is a precursor of the steroid hormones and vitamin D.
What does Vitamin C do?Collagen formation, antioxidant, enhances iron absorption
What does Vitamin B complex Thiamin do?Coenzyme in key reactions that produce energy from glucose
What does Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid) do?Visual acuity in dim light, formation and maintenance of skin and mucous membranes; immune function
What does Vitamin D (cholecalciferol, ergosterol) do?Calcium and phosphorus metabolism, stimulates calcium absorption
What does Vitamin E (tocopherol) do?Antioxidant, protects vitamin A, heme synthesis
What does Vitamin K do?Synthesis of certain proteins necessary for blood clotting
Which vitamins are water soluble?Vitamins A, D, E, and K, the fat-soluble vitamins, are absorbed with fat into the lymphatic circulation.
What does Phosphorus do?Bone and tooth formation, acid–base balance, energy metabolism
What does Potassium do?Major ion of intracellular fluid, fluid balance, acid–base balance
What does Chloride do?Component of HCl in stomach, fluid balance, acid–base balance
What is obesity? defined as body weight 20% or more above ideal weight or having a BMI of 30 or more
4 ways to assess dietary intake24-Hour Recall Method, Food Diaries/Calorie Counts. Food Frequency Record Diet History
What are Anthropometric measurements?used to determine body dimensions. In children, anthropometric measurements are used to assess growth rate; in adults, they can give indirect measurements of body protein and fat stores.
What is the normal Hemoglobin level? decreased could mean?(normal = 12–18 g/dL) decreased → anemia
What is the normal Hematocrit level? decreased/increased could mean?(normal = 40%–50%) decreased → anemia increased → dehydration
What is the normal Serum albumin level? decreased could mean?(normal = 3.5–5.5 g/dL) decreased → malnutrition (prolonged protein depletion), malabsorption
What is the normal BUN level? decreased/increased could mean?(normal = 17–18 mg/dL) increased → starvation, high protein intake, severe dehydration decreased → malnutrition, overhydration
What is the normal Creatinine level? decreased/increased could mean?(normal = 0.4–1.5 mg/dL) increased → dehydration decreased → reduction in total muscle mass, severe malnutrition
Full liquid diets contain what?all the items on a clear liquid diet. Additional items allowed include milk and milk drinks, puddings, custards, plain frozen desserts, pasteurized eggs, cereal gruels, vegetable juices, and milk and egg substitutes in addition to clear liquids. A full liquid diet contains liquids that can be poured at room temperature. High-calorie, high-protein supplements are recommended if a full liquid diet is used for more than 3 days.
A nasogastric (NG) tube is inserted through what?nose and into the stomach.
A nasointestinal (NI) tube is passed through what? the nose and into the upper portion of the small intestine.
How do you confirm correct feeding tube placement? 3Radiographic Examination. Measurement of Aspirate pH and Visual Assessment of Aspirate. Measurement of Tube Length and Measurement of Tube Marking.
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