Nutrition week 8 (no lecture capture)

winniesmith2's version from 2018-01-02 13:03

Section 1

Question Answer
Popular images VS unpopular images Popular images of children and young adults are where they are looking healthy and slim but realistically the photos of obese children and young adults is probably more realistic.
Media imagesthe media portrays images of 'ideal' bodies, slim, and muscle toned, but not exactly realistic or healthy images for everyone- aspirational bodies.
What are the issues/ concerns with the media portraying these body images. -Cultural norms, values, fashions, -Weight control or shape control? -What we look like or how heavy we are? -Weight as a proxy for “size”? -Total weight or body fat? -Amount of fat or distribution of fat? -Fear of fatness (body dysphoria) -Reduction of specific dimensions e.g. waist, hips, arms, etc.? -Accuracy of body image assessment? -Childhood obesity and growth needs? -Weight reduction during pregnancy weight gain?
What are the 2 fears of fatnessbody dysphoria and fatness phobia
What is body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) or body dysmorphiais an anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to spend a lot of time worrying about their appearance and to have a distorted view of how they look.
Describe the life cycle trends in fatness in females. Graph page 8 (N=15000 US 10 state nutrition survey). Female fat levels (triceps fatfold) stay steady throughout childhood until prepubertal gain. This gain continues throughout adolescents until a slight plateau until 20yrs. then there is an adult gain in fat through adulthood until peak fatness (around age 50). After this there is a decline in fat due to age loss, to around the same level as the end of adol. Ranges from 8mm to 22mm.
Describe the life cycle trends in fatness in males. Graph page 8 Male fat levels (tricep fatfold) stay steady up until preschool years when there is a preschool loss of fat. After this it plateaus slightly before the prepubertal gain in fat, this increases until the adolescent stage when they experience a loss in fat levels. From around the age of 18 they start to gain fat due to adult gain, until peak fatness levels occur around 50 yrs. Next they experience an age loss in fat. Same process as females but loss/gain of fat a lot less drastic. Range from 8mm to 12mm
Google search; weight control methods; what are the 12 recommended tips 1. don't skip breakfast. 2. Eat regular meals. 3. Eat plenty of fruit and veg. 4. Get more active. 5. Drink plenty of water. 6. Eat high-fibre foods. 7. Read food labels. 8. Use a smaller plate. 9. Don't ban foods. 10. Don't stock junk food. 11. Cut down on alcohol. 12. Plan your meals.
Things to spot in a bad diet 1. Does the diet recommend consulting a doctor? 2. Has a registered dietician/nutritionist helped to design the diet? 3. Is BMI with/without fat distribution measures (waist circ.) used to set realistic goals? 4. Is the recommended weight loss about 1 kg per week? 5. Does the diet include foods from all food groups (with local/national variation/availability)? 6. Does the diet provide ≥1200kcal for women, ≥1500kcal for men per day? 7. Personal eating styles e.g. pregnancy, menopause, etc.? 8. Is PA encouraged? 9. Does the diet require special products, supplements, etc.? 10. Are exaggerated claims, high pressure sales involved?
What was the body image study conducted in hong kong Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in hong kong. By Cheung et al, BMC Public health
What did the who wants a slimmer body study do : Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale.
What were the results of the who wants a slimmer body studythree-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weights desired a slimmer body shape.Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women
What were the conclusions of the who wants a slimmer body study-Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. -Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviours. -Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.
Describe the who wants a slimmer body; body shape rating graph Female current body shape rating was a domed graph spread from 1 to 7 but the ideal rating was 2-4 with a sharper peak. The same occurred in males but the actual range was 1-7 and the ideal rage was from 3-6

Section 2

Question Answer
Keys messages from Reading; Low birth weight is associated with what?with increased rate of coronary heart disease and the related disorders stroke, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. These associations have been extensively replicated in studies in different countries and are not the result of confounding variables.
What do the associations between birth size and later disease depend on associations between birth size and later disease extend across the normal range of birth weight and depend on lower birth weights in relation to the duration of gestation, rather than the effects of premature birth.
The effects of birth size and later disease may be a consequence of what programming, whereby a stimulus or an insult at a critical, sensitive period of early life has permanent effects on structure, physiology and metabolism.
Programming of the fetus may result from what adaptations invoked when the maternoplacental nutrient supply fails to match the fetal nutrient demand.
What are the influences that impair fetal development and program adult cardiovascular diseaseyet to be defined. There are strong pointers to the importance of maternal body composition and dietary balance during pregnancy.
What does the fetal origins hypothesis propose that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology and metabolism, thereby predisposing to cardiovascular, metabolism and endocrine disease in adult life.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is now though to be a consequence of what of fetal adaptations to undernutrition that are beneficial for short-term survival, even though they are detrimental to health in postreproductive life.