Nutrition week 3

winniesmith2's version from 2017-10-21 16:46

Section 1

Question Answer
UNICEF/WHO indicators of national nutritional wellbeing. %LBW (low body weight); Breastfeeding Early initiation, exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months <6 months. Breast + complimentary foods 6-9 months and still breastfeeding 20-23 months
In environmental, what % of mothers exclusively breastfeed for 4 months in the uk13% (highly educated women- highly committed and can offend to stay with baby constantly) - worst areas 6-7months
(%under 5s suffering from) Underweight: weight- for-age
(%under 5s suffering from) Wastingweight-for-height. Acute violent malnutrition
(%under 5s suffering from) Stuntingheight-for-age. Long term chronic malnutrition
UNICEF/WHO indicators of national nutritional wellbeing - Vitamin A deficiencyUNICEF/WHO see as important, supplementation 6-59 months.
UNICEF/WHO indicators of national nutritional wellbeing; iodine deficiency % households consuming iodized salt
What are the Anthropometric cut-offs for stunting, underweight, and wasting (Z-scores or SDS)Normal >-1 (z scores/SD). Mild <-1 to -2. Moderate <-2 to -3. Severe <-3.
Why do we have 3 different classifications for malnutrition, not just normal and malnutrition Normally you want to help the children that are.Need to priorities those in the worst case scenarios to treat first, especially when resources limited.
NCHS/WHO references for growthrepresents child growth/society as it is.
Longitudinal charts for growth - WHO longitudinal growth standard for 'optimal growth'issue- do not no what 'optimal growth is' . Tried to account for external conditions (smoking parents, breast fed etc)
What are references -cross-sectional data (particular moment in time) -representative sample -growth “as is” e.g. NCHS/WHO, UK90
What are standards -longitudinal data -selected sample -growth “as it ought to be” or “optimal” -e.g. WHO 2006
How to work out BMIwt (kg) / Ht squared (m)
Critical period; Adiposity reboundRecognised that the was a bounce in adiposity, timing variable, the higher the BMI, the earlier your rebound will be and the higher your bmi when going into adolescence.
Describe impacts of BBC: Hospital ban on certain food What we eat depends on what is available, society/ officials at unis,hospitals etc need to stop selling certain foods, in order for people to reduce people having them. For example, NHS England has put restrictions on what hospitals can sell (supersize chocolate and sweets sold should be =<250 cals. Pre packed sandwiches at <400 cals <5g saturates fat per 100g. 80% of drinks <5g dded sugar per 100ml.) NHS will ban sugary drinks if hospitals did not cut down the number they sell. ALSO Targeting hospital staff with 700,000 of 1.3 million being overweight or obese.
Evidence that increase in price causes decrease of sugary drink sales Restaurant chain 'cut sugary drink sales' . Jamie Oliver put 10p on price of sugary drinks to see sales fall by 9%. Menu redesigned, new products and establishment of a children's health fund from levy proceeds.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is epidemiologystudy of human diseases.
What does epidemiology aim to do -Describe the distributions, patterns and extent of disease in human populations. -Understand why disease is more common in some groups or individuals than others (elucidate the aetiology of the disease). -Provide information necessary to manage and plan services for the prevention, control and treatment of disease.
What does eatiologyroot cause- what starts it - underlying causes of disease.
What is nutritional epidemiology Nutritional epidemiology applies epidemiological techniques to the understanding of the relationship between our diet and our health
What are the main focuses of nutritional epidemiology -elucidateof the causes of chronic disease -evaluatethe quality of the measures of exposure and outcome -informpublic health nutrition to prevent illness and promote health and wellness
Relatively modern science1753 (enlightenment in France) James lind- scurvy--Vit.C. 1884 Kanehiro Takaki- Beri beri theiamin or Vit,B1 deficiency. 1912- Ricktes- lack of Vit.D and calcium deficiency.
Advantages of nutritional epidemiology-Direct relevance to human health. -The epidemiological results are used to calculate direct estimates of risk, which can then be translated into specific recommendations for changes in nutrient intakes or food consumption patterns. -Findings from nutritional epidemiology can even have direct implications for food processing and technology. (key words; relevance, risk, recommendations, food processing and technology)
Difficulties; what is bias defined as systematic error, resulting in over- or underestimation of the strength of an association between an exposure and an outcome e.g. sampling bias
Difficulties; Causation If the association between a factor and a disease is not causal efforts to modify exposure to that factor will not reduce disease risk e.g. alcohol and lung cancer.
Mid 20th Century: Smoking and lung cancer relationship demonstrated:-Multifactorial models of causation. -Statistical methods and computing power to disentangle complex exposures and outcomes.
Does A cause B? things to consider. -Exposure -Outcome -Association -Strength -Consistency -Biological gradient (dose response) -Threshold effect -Plausibility & coherence -(Non)Experimental evidence
Exposureseverity of exposure, how much are you exposed too, duration of exposure (how long, how often) DURATION, FREQUENCY, MAGNITUDE.
Outcome pre-clinical, how bad is the illness/outcome, difficult to get measurable outcomes-