Nutrition lecture 6 part 2

winniesmith2's version from 2017-11-09 15:49

Section 1

Question Answer
pg 1-9 growth and development recapbarker hypothesis
Maternal nutrition is .....regarded as a highly variable component of the environment that determines fetal growth
Effect of nutrition (ergy, protein and Iron intakes during pregnancy – effect on birthweight (N=300) )-In well-nourished populations the impact of maternal nutrient intake upon fetal growth is minimal. -Wide variation in nutrient intake generally has no effect on birthweight. -Human fetal growth is relatively protected from the effects of undernutrition. Iron was the only variable which slightly affected birth weight.
The contribution of maternal nutritionGenerally the effects of maternal dietary intakes upon birth weight are minor. Estimated that only 6% of variation in birth weight is due to maternal food intake.
The growth of the fetus therefore depends on not on maternal intake, but on the nutrients which are available across the placenta, maternal stores, maternal activity and maternal body composition. - what actually gets to the feotus.
The dutch famine -The Dutch Hunger Winter 1944-1945 - blockade of rations . -At the height of the famine rations provided only 600 kcal/day. -The duration of the famine meant that pregnant women were exposed for varying periods and at different stages of gestation. -Impacted upon fetal growth and birthweight, dependent on time in gestation.
the dutch famine findingsif famine hit in late / (mid) gestation- most effected, as this is where a child puts on most of its weight. before or after, not effected.
The dutch famine, prevalence of CHDif famine in early gestation, highest percentage of CHD, because it is when the heart develops. Exposure to the famine during fetal development was associated with greater risk of heart disease, type-2 diabetes and impaired kidney function.
page 15 flow diagram

Section 2

Question Answer
'breast is best'All national and world health organisations promote this message: WHO, UK Dept of Health: Exclusive source of nutrition for 6 months .
Most when are physically able to breastfeed, but exceptions include; -trauma which has injured the milk ducts -hormonal and glandular deficiency. Even in situations where the maternal diet is poor, breastfeeding will be maintained and the micronutrient composition of milk will be near-optimal.
Breastmilk composition affected by numerous factors, mostly poorly understood. Diagram page 20.
what is the biggest predictor of childhood obesitymother with a high BMI. -75% of overweight parents of overweight children do not believe that there overweight-ness was a problem. created obesogenic environment.
quote from fields et al study on breastmilk compositionExisting studies are mostly small and not well controlled for confounding by age of infant at milk measurement, breastfeeding exclusivity, and technical/ behavioural factors
Nutrient requirements of infantspg22. energy requirements drop dramatically over 4 years, so does calcium intake and protein(moderately)
Comparing milks- human, cow and goatcalories- not very different. Protein more in cow and even more in goat. calcium, human milk 79, cows 276 and goats 327. Humans contain what it needs for the infant- not in anyway deficient. maternal malnutrition must be severe to affect milk.
Figures of global distributionuk/Europe, low levels of breastfeeding compared to rest of the world.
pg 28