Nutrition lecture 2

winniesmith2's version from 2017-10-12 14:47

Section 1

Question Answer
AntipodesAustralia and new zealand
Guidelines Daily Amounts (GDAs)derived from current Government dietary recommendations for the UK population and are provided as daily guidelines for healthy adults. Can help to make healthier choices by making it easier to put the nutrition content of food in the context of overall diet. Not meant to be used as targets as we all have individual requirements depending on many factors including size and activity levels.
Back of pack nutritionhas the nutrition content of what you are going to each in 2 forms, per 100g and then per portion- does specify size portion size (sometimes may have amount- e.g per half pack)- all aimed at 25 year old average weight and height male.
What do the general public readthe traffic light system on the front - if that
How is USA scheduled to change food labels Changed the way in which it presents food labelling. KEY info in bold. Precise information. Easy and simple to read. Servings: larger bolder type. Serving size: updated. Calories; larger type. Updated daily values. New; added sugars. Change in nutrients required. Actual amounts declared. New footnote.
How do we assess nutritional status? perceptionBy comparison to ideal
What are the issues with comparing to an ideal subjective, depends on social perceptions of acceptable/attractive/healthy morphology: -marginal food insecure environment - size equates to wealth
How do we assess nutritional status? measurementBy measurement, of morphology and biomarkers. For example, waist circumference. By comparison to accepted reference.
What are the advantages of measurement?-Objective -Depends on dimension and level of measurement required which depends on… Reason for assessment: - screening (one of measurement) - surveillance (over time) - monitoring (detailed). - Dimension; weight or fat?

Section 2

Question Answer
Establish nutritional status - direct methodsindividual monitoring using objective criteria e.g. weight, height, BMI, fat, biomarkers, etc.
Establish nutritional status -indirect methodscommunity level measuring influences e.g. ecological (crop production), economic (per capita income and expenditure on food), health (%stunted, %wasted, %thin, IMR, U5MR)
Malnutrition= over-nutritionmainly developed countries but also nutritional transition highlights developing countries for obesity; BMI, body fat , fat distribution, fat patterning; -Overweight = BMI>25 IOTF; >85% USA -Obese = BMI>30 IOTF; >95% USA
Malnutrition= under-nutrition= primarily developing countries. -underweight = low weight-for-age -stunting = low height-for-age -wasting = low weight-for-height -vitamin deficiency, e.g. A, D, B12, etc -micro-nutrient deficiency e.g. Iron, zinc, iodine, etc
overweightBMI>25 IOTF; >85% USA
obese BMI>30 IOTF; >95% USA
underweightlow weight-for-age
stunting = low height-for-age
wasting low weight-for-height
vitamin deficiency e.g. A, D, B12, etc
micro-nutrient deficiency Iron, zinc, iodine, etc
Malnutrition + infection is the leading cause of death among young children in developing countries
How many children underweight 183 million low weight-for-age
how many children wasted67 million low weight-for-height
how many children stunted 226 million low height-for-age
why is weight positively skewed because you can become huge and still maintain life but you can not get to a very little weight as you would die
read langley evans -nutrition health and diseasechapter 1