Nutrition final

bojucodo's version from 2018-02-13 23:15

Section 1

Question Answer
What is nutrition?The science that studies food and how food nourishes our bodies and influences out health
Dietary guidlies for americansSet of principles to assist Americans in designing a healtfhul diet and lifestyle
7 classes of nutrientsCarbs, Fats, Proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, fibers :-)
Anabolismbuilding reactions. requires energy
Catabolismbreakdown reactions. release energy
Body takes energy from Mac. Nutr. in what orderCarbs, fats, proteins
Functions of vitamins and mineralshelp enzymes to their job, don't contain energy
Electrolytesubstance that disassociates in solution into postively and negatively charged ions, thus capable of carrying and electrical current
Functions of electrolytesregulate fluid balance, enable nerves to respond to stimuli, signal muscles to contract
group of electrolytessodium, potassium, choride
Function of Sodiummajor positively charged electrolyte in extracellular fluid. exchages with potassium across cell membranes
Too much sodium linked tohigh blood pressure, hyperantrremia
Functions of potassiumworks with sodium to maintain proper fluid balance
Food sources of potassiumfruits and veggies like bananas
Too much potassiumhyperkalemia
Too little potassiumhypokalemia
Functions of chloridehelps maintain fluid balance in extracellular fluid
Food source of chloridesalt
Too much chloridehypertension in salt sensitive individuals
Too little chlorideca occur during severe dehydration
Functional foodsprovide health benefits beyond nutrients...
Examples of functional foodsfoods enriched with iodine, eggs with more omega 3, yogurt with probiotics
Phytochemicalsplant chemicals, have health-promoting effects in humans. so, found in fruits and veggies
How phytochemicals reduce disease riskanitoxidant properties,protects against diseases of aging.
Zoochemicalsfound in animals.. health benefits.
Too low sodiumhypnatermia
Organic Nutrientscarbs, protiens, fats, vitamins
inorganic utrientsminerals, water
AMDR carbs45-65%
AMDR fats 20-35%
AMDR protiens10-35%
Energy expenditure from BMR 60-75%
Energy expenditure from TEF5-10%
Energy expenditure from physical activity energy cost15-35%
Basal Metabolic Rateenergy expenditure at rest
Thermic effect of foodenergy expended to process food


Question Answer
Mypyramid grainsmake half your grains whole
How much grains should we eat6oz a day
Mypyramid veggiesvary your veggies
How much veggies should we eat2 1/2 cups a day
Mypyramid FruitsFocus on fruits
How much fruits should we eat2 cups a day
Mypyramid milkget your calcium rich foods
how much milk should we drink3 cups a day
mypyramid meat and beansgo lean with protein
how much protein should we eat5 1/2 oz a day

Section 2

Question Answer
DGA: Make smart choices...from every food group
DGA: Find balance...between food and physical activity
DGA: Get the most...nutrition from calories
DGA: Stay within...daily calorie needs
Mypyramid GrainsMake half your grains whole

Section 3

Question Answer
Goals of DRIsamount of nutrient to prevent disease in health individuals, and reduce risk of chronic diseases
DRI: EAREstimated Average Requirement
DRI: RDARecommeded Dietary Allowace
DRI: AIAdequate Intake
DRI: ULTolerable Upper Intake Level

Section 4

Question Answer
Sugars and Starches are...carbs.
Simple carbs are knowns assugars; monosaccharides, disaccharides
Monosaccharidesglucose, fructose, galactose
Disacchaides: Lactose, malose, sucrose
glucosemost abundant sugar molecule
fructosefound in fruits and veggies, sweetes natural sugar.
becomes high fructose corn syrup when processedfructose
galactosedoes not occur alone in foods; joins with glucose to make lactose
lactosemilk sugar
maltosemalt sugar
sucroseprovides sweet taste in honey, maple syrup when refined
Polysaccharidescomplex carbs; starch, glycogen, fiber
starchfound in plants
glycogenstored in animals
dietary fibernondigestable carb part of plants
functional fibernondigestable form of carbs extracted from plants or manufactured- health benefits
benefits of fibermay reduce risk of colon cancer, digestive problems, heart disease, ehance weight loss, diabetes 2.
sources of fiberbrown rice, complex carbs. whole grains

Section 5

Question Answer
fats and oils are...lipids
saturated and transfatsincrease risk for heart disease, lower 'good' cholesterol and raise 'bad' cholesterol, change cell membrane function, alter way choles. is removed from blood
food sources of bad fatsfast food... etc. butter
Omega 6 benefitscontrol cell growth, slow clotting, reduce hypertension, supress inflamation, maiteance of red blood cells, fertility, skin
Omega 6 food soucesnuts, seeds, veg. oils
Omega 3 benefitsreduce blood pressure and fat in the blood, cell structure and membranes, positive influece on cholesterol
Omega 3 food soucesflaxseed, soybean oil. fish (salmon, mackeral, tuna), dairy products, walnuts, beans
benefits of fatprovide energy, stores energy for later use, enable transport of fat-soluable vitamins, maintain cell functio, pretection for body, better food textures and flavors
HDL'good' cholesterol...
LDL'bad' cholesterol


Question Answer
Animal Sources of Proteinbeef, chicken, turkey, fish, milk, some cheese
Plant sources of proteintofu, soy milk, hummus, beans
Functions of body proteiscell growth, repair, maitenence, act as enzymes and hormones, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, acid base balance, stong immune system, energy source
how many amino acids are essential9
how many amino acids are nonessential11
Ways high protein can be harmfulhigh cholesterol, bone loss, kidney disease
Marasmusdisease that makes you look like skin and bones
Kwashiokordisease that causes among other things distetion of the belly


Question Answer
DRI for lioleic acid14 to 17 g/day for men, 11 to 12 for women
DRI for alpha linoleic acid1.6 g/day for men, 1.1 for women
DRI for carbs130g/day
DRI for proteins0.8 g/body weight/day


Question Answer
Functions of Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)enzyme cofactor for carb and amino acid metabolism
Food sources for Vb1 Thiaminpork, fortified cereals, enriched rice and pasta, peas, tuna legumes
Toxicity/Defiency of vb1 thiaminD: beriberi, fatigue, decreases memory
Functions of vb2 riboflavinenzyme cofactor for carb and fat metabolism
Food sources of vb2 riboflavinbeef liver, shrimp, milk and dairy, enriched breads and grains
Deficiency of vb2 riboflavinariboflavinosis; swollen mouth and throat, anemia
Functions of NiacinDNA replication, carb and fat metabolism
Food sources of Niacinmost meat/fish/poultry
T and D of Niacin T: liver damage, glucose intolerance D: Pellagra
Functions of vb6enzyme cofactor for carb and amino acid metab. assits synthesis of blood cells
Food sources of vb6chickpeas, meat/fish/ poultry, white potatoes
T and D of vb6T:nerve damage, skin legios. D: anemia, depression
Functions of folateDNA synthesis
Food sources of folatelegumes, spinach, liver
T and D of folateT: masks symptons of vb12 deficinecy D: anemia, nueral tube defects in fetus
Functions of vb12formation of blood, healthy nervous system
Food sources of vb12all meat/fish/poultry, milk and dairy
D of vb12anemia, tingling numbess, memory loss, dementia
Nutrients for healthy blood Iron and zinc
Function of Ironcomponent of hemoglobin in blood cells
Food sources of Ironmeat/fish/poultry, fortified cereals, legumes
T and D of IronT: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, organ damage, death D:anemia
Function of ZincImmune system functio, body maturation, gene regulation
Food sources of Zincmeat/fish/poultry, legumes, fortified cereals
T and D of ZincT: depressed immune function D: gowth retardation, hair loss, lesions
More abosorbable: heme iron or non-heme ironheme iron
What enhances absorbtion of ironmeat, fish, poultry, vitamin c
Inhibitors of Zinc absorbtionnon-heme iron, fiber
Enhances zinc aborbtionprotein
Nutrients that maintain bone healthcalcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, phosphorus, flouride, magnesium
Functions of Calciumprovide structure to bones and teeth
Food sources of Calciumdairy, gree veggies
Functions of Vit. dregulate blood calcium levels calcification of the bone
Food sources of Vit. danimal products, fatty fish
Osteoporosisfrom poor bone health; low bone density deterioration of bone tissue'
Flouridemaintains health of teeth and bones, stimulates new bone growth
Phosphorusbone formation
Antioxidentsprotect our cells fom damage caused by oxidation
Antioxiants help prevent cancerenhancing immune system, inhibiting growth of cancer cells and tumors, preventing oxidative damage to our cells DNA by scavenging free radicals
Antioxidents help prevent CVD byscaveging free radicals, reducing low-grade inflammation, reducing blood coagulation and formation of clots
Functions of Vitamin Aadjust to light, contributes to healthy bone growth, may protect LDLS from oxidation
Toxicity Vit Abirth defects, spontanious abortion, damage to liver, eyes...
Deficiency vit a night blindness
food sources of vit aturkey giblets, beef liver, pumpkin, carrots, sweet potatoes, enriched cereals
Function of Vit Cmaintains connective tissue
Deficiency of vit cscurvy
Food sources of Vit Cmany fruits and veggies
Function of Vit Eantioxidant; protects cells from oxidation
Food souces of Vit Eveggie oils, nuts, seeds
Vit E toxicityInhibition of blood clotting
Vit E deficiencyanemia, leg cramps, muscle weakness