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Nutrition Exam #1

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morejimu's version from 2016-09-15 01:51

Section

Question Answer
Define nutritionthe science that links food to health and disease
top cause of death in USHeart Disease
top percentage of food intake in American Diet?refined sugar and carbs
What % of kids diets one from added sugars and unhealthy fats?40%
In 2014, what % of US adults 20+ are overweight or obese?68.8%
What % of Americans have a "phytonutrient gap"?80%
what color of phytonutrient foods do Americans lack the most?white
What is the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables compared to what Americans actually eat?5-9, but actually eat 3.5
What is hidden hunger?high caloric consumption, but low micronutrient density
What sets the stage for disease?metabolic disruptions
Healthy People 2020 doing?Holistic approach to determinants of health defined within 5 categories
Define nutrientswhat our body requires for healthy functioning
Essential nutrientsneed to be present in the food we eat because we cannot make them through metabolism
what are the six classes of nutrients?carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
what is adequacy?energy + nutrients
what is variety?including different food groups
What are the ABCDEs?Used for measuring nutrition states: Anthropometrics (height, weight, skin folds, body circumference); Biochemical assessment (nutrients levels); Clinical assessment (physical appearance); dietary assessment (food/drink journals); Environmental assessment (socioeconomic factors)
BMI not always accurate, why?does not take muscle mass into consideration
What is a DRI?Dietary reference intakes, values for healthy people that include age and gender plus pregnancy and lactation, averaged over several days
What does RDA stand for?Recommended dietary allowance
What does ERR stand for?Estimated Energy Requirement
What does UL stand for?tolerable upper intake level, which is the max level of a nutrient, MOST IMPORTANT!
What are the standards for Daily Values?4 years+, based on 2000 calorie diet, represent max rather than goals!
What are the parts of the NCNM, Food as medicine plate?protein, healthy fats, fruit, water, GF whole grains, and half is veggies
How is the ingredient list organized?in descending order by WEIGHT
What are the main parts of an atom?nucleus (neutrons and protons), electrons (up to 2 closest to nucleus and up to 8 in secure shells, form molecules by completing shells)
Free radical is?a molecule, atom, or ion with one or more unpaired electrons or incomplete shells, NOT happy!
Free radical damage?can lead to aging and disease, but are neutralized by antioxidants (phytonutrients)
Lipids are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?hydrophobic
Phospholipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic?both, form that membrane of a cell!!!!
Carbs hydrophilic or hydrophobic?hydrophilic
Proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic?can be both, made up of amino acids
What does cholesterol do for the cell?stabilizes the membrane
What makes the energy in the cell?mitochondria, makes the ATP
What makes protein from RNA?ribosomes
What makes lipids, detoxifies drugs, stores calcium inside muscle cells?smooth ER
What makes proteins that enter the Golgi complex?Rough ER
What does the Golgi do?modifies, sorts, and packages proteins, lipids, and carbs for cell secretion or use within the cell
What do lysosomes do?digestive enzymes
What do peroxisomes do?detoxify harmful molecules such as alcohol
What type of metabolism breaks down complex molecules into smaller ones, provides ATP?catabolism
Process of food-->energy?food digested by enzymes in stomach and small intestine-->digested molecules enter small intestine-->molecules go to blood where they are transported to all cells of the body-->blood cells make these into ATP
memorize

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