Nutrition exam 1

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-09-29 00:56

Section 1

Question Answer
healthis the merging and balancing of five physical and psychological dimensions of health: physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual
nutritionis the study of essential nutrients and the processes by which nutrients are used by the body
wellnessis a lifestyle that enhances our level of health.
disease preventionis the recognition of a danger to health that could be reduced or alleviated through specific actions or changes in lifestyle behaviors.
six nutrient categorieslipids, proteins, carbs, minerals, vitamins, and water
the macronutrients carbs, proteins, and lipids
3 functions of essential nutrientsproviding energy, regulating body processes, and aiding growth and repair of body tissues
carbs calories per gram 4
food selection is based off of what 6 things?food preferences, media, genetic factors, environmental effects, personal preferences and taste
who makes the dietary guidelines for americans?USDA and HHS
how often are the dietary guidelines revised?every 5 years
2015 dietary guidelines (7 things)more plants, more information, less SoFas (solid fats and added sugars), sodium, physical activity, food saftey, and shortfall nutrients (calcium and vitamin D)
serving size isgeneral
portion size isdifferent for every person
DV'sdaily values. Represents how much of a specific nutrient you should obtain daily

Section 2

Question Answer
carbs are a major source ofenergy and dietary fiber
simple carbs found infruits, milk, and sweetners
complex carbs found incereals, grains, fruits, and vegetables
monomer of carbsglucose
whats the most efficent form of energy in the bodyglucose
what are proteins composed of20 amino acids-9 essential and 11 nonessential
Provide densest form of energy and other functions in the body and in foodslipids
consumption of lipidsRisk and reduction for diet-related diseases
3 types of lipidstriglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
Compounds that indirectly assist other nutrients through processes of digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretionvitamins
Serve structural purposes in body and found in body fluidsminerals
where are minerals found?fruits, vegetables, dairy, meats, and legumes
Functions as major part of every tissue in bodywater
dietary standardsare a guide to adequate nutrient intake levels against which to compare nutrient values of foods consumed
DRIsDietary reference intakes
DRIs depend onapply to various individuals and population groups
EAREstimated Average Requirement
RDARecommended Dietary Allowance
RDA depends onage and gender
AIAdequate Intake
ULhow much you can have of a nutrient before it becomes toxic
DVdaily value. the same for everyone because on food labels only
nutritional assesment determinesnutritional status

Section 3

Question Answer
how many essential amino acids are there?9
how many nonessential amino acids are there?11
carbsorganic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in form of simple carbohydrates or sugars
what are carbs a source of?energy, sweetness, and dietary fiber
sources of carbsGrains, F&V, sweets, dairy, legumes
sucrosetabel sugar
fructosenatural and processed. fruits vs. high-fructose corn syrup
3 monosacharidesglucose, fructose and galactose
3 disacharidessucrose, maltose and lactose
what makes sucroseglucose+fructose
what makes maltoseglucose+glucose
what makes lactosegalactose+glucose
starchpolysacharide. plant storage form of sugar
fiberpolysacharide. cannot be digested by humans
glycogenin liver and muscles. store more in muscles
glycogenisisconverting glucose to glycogen
only ____ glycogen can raise blood glucoseliver
metabolismprimarily maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis at 70 to 100 mg/dL
controls glucose metabolism and blood glucose level regulationhormonal system
pancreatic hormone regulates blood glucose uptakeinsulin
pancreatic hormone releases glycogen from liverglucagon
The ___ content of a carb controls how long it takes to absorb the carbfiber
low blood suger=pancreas releases insulin
high blood sugar=pancreas releases glucagon
hypoglycemaBlood glucose levels below normal values; symptom of underlying disorder, not a disease
Diabetes MelitusDisorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insulin that is either defective or deficient. type 1 and 2 Diabetes. elivated levels of blood glucose
type 1 diabetespancreas produces no insulin
type 2 diabetespancreas produces defective insulin unable to serve needs of body
gestational diabetesdiabetes occurring most commonly after 26th week of gestation

Section 4

Question Answer
95% of the fat in foods and in our bodies are triglycerides
what are triglycerides made of3 fatty acids with a glycerol backbone
function of triglyceridesfat storage in adipose tissue
function of phosphoipidscell membrane structure and lipoproteins
functions of sterolsbile, vitamin D, hormones, and cells central nervous system
types of fatty acids that clog arteriessaturated fatty acids
sources of MUFAsolive oil, peanuts/peanut oil, avocado, and canola
sources of PUFAsvegetable oils (corn, safflower, wheat germ, canola, sesame, and sunflower), fish, and margarine
fat digestionmechanical
unsaturated fatliquid at room temp and mostly plant based
saturated fatsolid at room temp and mostly animal based
sources of dietary cholesterol areamount of cholesterol present in food. only in animal-based food
blood cholesterolassociated with high risk for coronary artery disease (CAD).
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) not good. brings fats to arteries
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) good. brings fats away from arteries and out of body
desirable amount of cholesterol300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day
unsaturated fats and LDLScan lower LDL and promote heart health
fiber and LDLScan help lower LDL cholesterol
if a food is cholesterol free and plant based can it still be bad?yes it can be high in saturated fat

Section 5

Question Answer
what makes up amino acids?carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
protein digestionmechanical
complete proteinshave all 9 essential amino acids (animal proteins)
incomplete amino acidsmissing 1 or more amino acid (plant-based)
complimentaryCombination of proteins that yield all essential amino acids