nearsightedness; refractive error - light rays focus in front of retina
uneven pupils (can indicate a CNS disorder)
"lazy eye" reduced vision not correctable by corrective lenses and not caused by eye disease
"cross eyed" eyes do not look in the same direction at the same time
loss of center field of vision, can be dry (retina deteriorates), or wet (leaky blood vessel grow under retina)
opacity of the lens or its capsule, not painful, occurs gradually (usually occurs around 65 or older)
disturbance in circulation of aqueous fluid which increases intraocular pressure causing optic nerve damage and loss of visual fields. Is preventable, painless, and permanent - leads to blindness if untreated
What are the three parts of the ear?
external, middle, inner
Conduction hearing loss
interruption of the sound waves in the inner or outer ear via air conduction
Sensorineural hearing loss
result of damage to inner ear, CN VIII, or hearing center of the brain
persists 6 months or longer, pt may not mention pain until asked, continues beyond healing
mild to severe, client reports pain, resolves with healing
arising from organs, or hollow viscera: poorly located, cramping, throbbing, aching
signals tissue damage, signal is sent by properly functioning, intact nerves
arising from damage to skin, muscle, bone, connective tissue: sharp, aching (type of physiological pain)
arising from damaged or malfunctioning nerves: electrical, burning, zinging
unpleasant abnormal sensations (mimics patho of neuropathic pain)
What are the 4 phases of nociceptive pain pathway?
Transduction (signal received), Transmission (signal travels to somatic sensory cortex), Modulation (message sent back down from brain to inhibit or intensify signal), Perception (subjective experience of pain)
an altered state of consciousness in which the individual's perception of & reaction to the environment are decreased
Why does wakefulness occur?
Daylight causes less melatonin, Highest levels of cortisol are in the morning, Increased acetylcholine, dopamine, and noradrenaline
What is NREM sleep?
non rapid eye movement; 75-80% of sleep is this type - it is essential for restoring energy and growth hormones. Deprivation can result in immunosuppression, low pain tolerance, fatigue, insulin resistance
What are the stages of NREM sleep?
Stage I (very light), Stage II (light), Stage III (delta/deep)
What is REM sleep?
rapid eye movement "dream-sleep"; occurs every 90 minutes (lasts 5-30 mins) - brain is highly active (learning, thinking, organizing regions of brain stimulated)
most common sleep complaint, often due to worry/stress, often affects older people, females
What are interventions for insomnia?
Stimulus control (create environment that promotes sleep), Cognitive therapy (develop positive thoughts/beliefs about sleep), Sleep restriction (limit time in bed in order to get to sleep/stay asleep)
unintended administration of nonvesicant drug/fluid into subcutaneous tissue: s/s coolness of skin around site, skin blanching/tautness, edema at/above/below insertion site, absence of or pinkish blood return, size difference from opposite arm/hand
infiltration of vesicant drug/fluid into subcutaneous tissue: s/s (same as infiltration plus) burning or stinging pain, redness followed by blistering, tissue necrosis, & ulceration
inflammation of the vein (can be mechanical, chemical, or bacterial): s/s redness at site, skin warm, swelling, palpable cord along the vein, increase in temperature
IV pump is based on volume, what is always standard about the drip rate?