As one ages, they become more familiar with loss, usually increasing their understanding and acceptance of life, loss, and death. Children differ not only in their understanding of loss but also in the way they may be affected (e.g. loss of a parent)
How does bereavement differ from mourning?
bereavement is the subjective experience of the survivor, mourning is the behavioral process through which grief is eventually resolved/altered
How do culture and religion impact the grief response?
culture may determine how death is viewed and how mourners behave, rituals (religious/spiritual) may help legitimize emotional/physical ventilation, provide a focus for managing confusion, disorganization, and loss of control which promoting social interaction
What is palliative care?
care that focuses on control of symptoms and compassion - 1. Help to minimize loneliness, fear, depression 2. Maintain client’s sense of security and dignity 3. Help client accept losses 4. Provide physical comfort
What is hospice care?
care that focuses on support and care of dying person and family - 1. Facilitate a peaceful and dignified death (physical & emotional) 2. Usually eligible when certified by PCP < 6 months to live 3. Supports those who remain after client's death
How may a nurse help facilitate the grieving process?
Explore and respect cultural, religious, personal values, Teach what to expect, Encourage expression and sharing of grief with support system
When is the grieving process completed?
grief work is never completely finished, healing occurs when the pain is less
Intellectual/emotional responses/behaviors by which individuals, families, communities work through the process of modifying self-concept based on the perception of potential loss
Characteristics of Anticipatory Grieving
Grieving for losses experienced during deteriorating illness, and the future that will be filled with loss
What outcome/intervention can be used with Anticipatory Grieving?
Outcome: Client will discuss that meaning of the anticipated loss and the functioning of the family Intervention: Develop a trusting relationship both with the client and with the family by using presence and therapeutic communication techniques
Occurs after the death of a significant other in which the experience of distress accompanying bereavement fails to follow normative (or cultural) expectations and manifests in functional impairment
Characteristics of Complicated Grieving
Decreased functioning in life roles, experiencing somatic symptoms of deceased, verbalizes feeling of shock, detachment, disbelief, persistent painful memories
What outcome/intervention can be used with Complicated Grieving?
Outcome: Client will express appropriate feelings of guilt, fear, anger, or sadness Intervention: Educate the client and their support system that grief resolution is not a sequential process and that the positive outcome of grief resolution is the integration of the deceased into the ongoing life of the griever