Nursing Foundations - Unit 3 (Teaching-Learning Process)

olanjones's version from 2016-03-07 18:21

Section 1

Question Answer
Behaviorism theory learning by elicited response: identify what needs to be taught, recognize and reward correct response
Cognitivism theorylearning is an intellectual process: recognize the developmental level of the learner and acknowledge their motivation and environment
Humanism theorylearning focuses on self-development & achieving full potential (i.e. Maslow's hierarchy): support learner self-motivation, self-reliance, independence
Cognitive domainunderstanding content
Affective domainchanging attitudes and promoting acceptance
Psychomotor domainhands-on skill development

Section 2 - Roles/Responsibility of Teaching

Question Answer
Assess learning needsexamine client's nursing history (age, understanding, culture), physical exam, readiness to learn, support system, barriers to learning
Diagnose learning needcan be designated as client's primary concern/problem or as the etiology of a nursing diagnosis associated with client's response to health dysfunction
Plan development to teach client(works best when client is involved in planning process) determine teaching priorities, set learning outcomes, choose content, select strategies, organize learning experiences
Implement teaching planmust be flexible to revision as needed due to changes in client or situation; should enhance learning and reduce learning barriers
Evaluate learningMeasure learning against predetermined learning outcomes; plan may need modification or repeated if objectives are not met
Document the teaching processprovides legal records of teaching/communication
Ex. of learning need as primary concern (diagnostic label)Deficient Knowledge (Low-calorie Diet) r/t inexperience with newly ordered therapy; Readiness for Enhanced Knowledge (Exercise & Activity) r/t desire to improve health behavior; Noncompliance (associated with intent to comply but has difficulty due to situational factors)
Ex. of deficient knowledge as etiologyRisk for Infection r/t deficient knowledge of STDs and their prevention

Section 3 - Affecting Factors

Question Answer
Motivation and Readinessdesire to learn as well as the willingness and ability to learn
Relevance and Psychomotor abilityis able to connect/relate new knowledge to past experience and possess the muscle strength, motor coordination, sensory acuity, energy to learn
Support and Feedbackfeels accepted, not judged and is given praise or suggestions of alternative behavior that may be used to achieve goal
Emotions and Physiological eventsanxiety/fear/agitation can interfere with learning as can pain or sensory deficit
Environment and Cultural aspectsreduce distractions and use cultural sensitivity when teaching; information should be presented in the client's cultural context
Active Involvement and Repetitionparticipation allows for faster learning and retention, repetition improves performance and retention
Simple to Complex Instruction and Timinginformation should be logically organized and presented at the appropriate time and intervals

Section 4

Question Answer
What is health literacy?the cognitive/social motivation and ability to gain access to, understand, and use information to promote and maintain good health
How does health literacy impact behavior/health outcomes?It can create barriers due to poverty, culture, or lack of understanding - nurses must explore levels/types of support available to client as part of teaching plan
What types of strategies work best with cognitive learning?descriptions, discussions, discovery, role-playing, printed/audiovisual material, answering questions, computer learning resources
What types of strategies work best with affective learning?discussions, discovery, role-playing, modeling, computer learning resources
What types of strategies work best with psychomotor learning?demonstration, practice, modeling, computer learning resources
What are SMART goals/outcomes?Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant/Realistic, Timely
Important considerations in assessing learning needsexisting knowledge, effects on client/family, what goals are most important to client, what resources are needed/available, what are barriers

Section 5 - Teaching Considerations/Modifications

Question Answer
Preschool ageallow child to touch and play with safe equipment, relate to child's experience, use child's vocab, involve parents in teaching
School-agegive factual information in concrete terms, focus on developing competency, use simple drawings/model for emphasis, answer questions honestly/factually
Adolescentsuse metaphors/analogies, give choices/multiple perspectives, incorporate client's norm group values and personal identity issues in teaching strategy
Adultinvolve client as active partner, encourage self-directed learning, keep content/strategies relevant and practical, incorporate previous life experience
Older adultexplain why information is important to client, incorporate previous life experience, accommodate for sensory and dexterity deficits, use short, frequent session <30 mins
Hispanic/Latino Americansdecisions often made by male/older family members, direct teaching to include all interested family members, ensure adequate physical space for family members who may accompany client
Black/African Americansfamily structure traditionally matriarchal, recognize central role of women and share health information with them, grandmothers often have essential role and are involved
Asian/Pacific Islandersdecision making is often a family matter, include family/make authority figure in education, respect if often automatically given to health provider, may need to be given permission to ask questions, do not mistake nods for understanding or informed consent

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