Nursing Foundations - Unit 2 (Assessing)

olanjones's version from 2016-02-20 16:45

Section 1

Question Answer
What is critical thinking?Analysis using inductive/deductive reasoning, making valid inferences, evaluating source credibility, sorting fact from opinion, clarifying concepts, and recognizing assumptions
How do Paul & Elder describe critical thinking?Thinking about your thinking, while you're thinking, to make it better, more clear, accurate, and defensible
What is Socratic questioning?A thought process used to look beneath the surface, recognize and examine assumptions, search for inconsistencies, examine multiple points of view, and differentiate what one knows from what one believes
What is critical reasoning?Ability to think through a clinical situation as it changes while taking into account the context and what is important to the client
Define inductive reasoningGeneralizations formed from a set of facts or observations
Define deductive reasoningReasoning from a general premise to a specific conclusion
Define critical analysisApplication of a set of questions to a particular situation or idea to determine essential information and ideas and discard unimportant information
Define cognitive processThinking process based on the knowledge of aspects of client care
Define metacognitive processReflective thinking and awareness of the skills learned by the nurse in caring for the client

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the nursing process?An organizing framework that uses critical thinking and critical reasoning as decision making tools to provide the best possible care
What is the purpose of the nursing process?Provide a framework for meeting client needs, identify health status, establish plan to meet needs, ensure care is planned, individualized, and reviewed
Who is credited with originating the nursing process?Originated by Lydia Hall, referred to by Johnson, Wiedenbach, and Orlando (btwn 1955-63)
What are the generally accepted steps of the nursing process?Assessing, Diagnosis, Planning, Intervention, Evaluation (ADPIE)
What is the purpose of the ANA Standards of Nursing Practice?To serve as a framework that uses overlapping interrelated phases for the practice of nursing. It is cyclic and dynamic, client-centered, collaborative and interpersonal, focuses on problem solving and decision making, and is universally applicable
What are the steps of the ANA Standards of Nursing Practice? Assessing, Diagnosis, Outcome identification, Planning, Intervention, Evaluation (ADOPIE)

Section 3

Question Answer
What activities are associated with the assessment phase of the nursing process?1. Collecting data 2. Organizing data 3. Validating data 4. Documenting data
What is the purpose of the assessment phase?Establish a database concerning a client's physical, psychological, and emotional health, and to identify health problems, risks, and health-promoting behaviors
How may data be collected?Through observation, interview, physical exam, or medical records
What is primary data?Information collected from the client (if not too young, too ill, or too confused)
What is secondary data?Information collected from a source other than the client (e.g. significant others, medical records, lab tests, other health team members, literature reviews)
What is a directive interview?A structured, nurse-controlled process that seeks specific information, often uses closed-ended questioning
What is a non-directive interview?A less structured, patient-controlled process that explores feelings and builds rapport, often uses open-ended questioning
Define rapportAn understanding between two or more people

Section 4

Question Answer
What are four types of assessments?Initial, Problem-focused, Emergency, and Time-lapsed.
What are the characteristics of an initial assessment?Performed within a specified time period, establishes a complete database, identifies problems, and provides a reference and comparison for future assessments
What are the characteristics of a problem-focused assessment?Is ongoing, integrated with nursing care, determines status of a specific problem that has been identified in a previous assessment
What are the characteristics of an emergency assessment?Performed during physiological or psychological crises, identifies life-threatening problems, identifies new or overlooked problems
What are the characteristics of a time-lapsed assessment?Occurs several months after initial assessment, compares current status to baseline

Section 5

Question Answer
What is a screening exam?A review of systems, brief review of essential functioning of various body parts or systems
What are four techniques used in physical exams?Inspection, Auscultation, Percussion, Palpation
Why is it important to organize collected data?It helps to cluster cues into meaningful groups to obtain a clearer understanding of the situation
What is Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Framework?A nursing model that helps to organize data in an effort to indicate both functional and dysfunctional results
What are the 11 components of Gordon's Functional Health Pattern?1. Health perception/health management 2. Nutrition/metabolic 3. Elimination 4. Activity/exercise 5. Sleep/rest 6. Cognitive 7. Self-perception/concept 8. Role/relationship 9. Sexuality 10. Coping/stress tolerance 11. Value/belief

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