Nursing Foundations - Unit 1 (History)

olanjones's version from 2016-01-24 22:41

Section 1

Question Answer
Florence Nightingalefounder of modern nursing. focused on illness and health, improved environment = improved health. Opened 1st training school for nurses (St. Thomas' Hospital, London), wrote 1st nursing textbook: Notes on Nursing
Linda Richardsreceived first diploma from US training school. 1st superintendent of Mass General Hospital, introduced documentation through 'nurses notes', initiated uniforms
Adelaide Nuttingcampaigned for nursing education in university settings. 1st nurse appointed to university professorship, 1st director of Dept of Nursing at Columbia University
Lillian Waldfounder of public health nursing. Established Henry Street Settlement Service, improved tenement housing, founded Children's Bureau of US Dept of Labor
Isabel Hamptom Robbfounded forerunner organizations of ANA & NLN. Implemented grading that would demonstrate students' competency, Supported student rights
Margaret Sangerrecognized relationship between poverty, overpopulation, and elevated infant/maternal mortality rates. Advocated for allowance of contraception information, 1st president of International Planned Parenthood Federation. Coined the phrase "birth control"
Mary Breckinridgeestablished Frontier Nursing Service. Provided primary care to rural America, lowed childbirth mortality rates in Leslie County, KY
Mary Mahoney1st African American professional nurse. Advocate for woman's right to vote, member of National Assoc of Colored Graduate Nurses

Section 2

Question Answer
Who were some of the first 'nurses' historically?monks and nuns who took care of the infirm as part of their religious vows
How did the emergence of nurse training schools (late 1800s/early 1900s) impact nursing?created conflict between trained and untrained nurses
What are some drawbacks of the early nurse training schools?they used an apprenticeship model, provided mostly clinical instruction, very little "education", used students as staff
How did WWI impact the field of nursing?created increased demand for nursing to care for military troops both overseas and in the US
What challenges did post WWII era pose on nursing?there was a larger demand for skilled nurses but a decreased number of nurses entering/re-joining the workforce (possible because workload was great but pay was little)
When did nursing move away from racial and gender segregation in the US?in the mid-twentieth century

Section 3

Question Answer
Criteria associated with a profession (7 of them)1. Specialized Education 2. Body of Knowledge 3. Service Orientation (commitment of service to others) 4. Ongoing Research 5. Code of Ethics 6. Autonomy 7. Professional Organization (i.e. ANA, NLN)
Who is credited with distinguishing the field of nursing from the field of medicine?Florence Nightingale
What positions did early nursing occupy before hospitals were prevalent?Private nurses within a household. When hospitals became more popular some people employed private nurses to attend to them in the hospital
How did the formation of nursing organizations (such as ANA, NLN) impact nursing?They helped to implement licensure and place more emphasis on the importance of education

Section 4

Question Answer
How did the emergence of health insurance impact the demand for nurses?more people were able to afford healthcare, increased demand for nurses
Who were often used as nurses during the Victorian Era?incarcerated criminals, poorly educated women, there was a very negative attitude towards nurses at this time
When did the "angel of mercy" image of nurses arise?during the late 19th century (Crimean War/Florence Nightingale), changed the way nurses were regarded
How did the suffragette movement change attitudes toward nursing?establishing the right to vote helped to shift society's viewpoint away from a paternalistic nature, women were seen less as being subservient towards men helping to change the view of a nurse as "the doctor's handmaiden"
What negative stereotypes have been associated with nursing?sex object, tyrannical mother, surrogate mother
Who initiated the "Nurses of America" effort to improve the image of nursing in the 1990s?the Tri-Council for Nursing (AACN, ANA, AONE, NLN)
What campaign did Johnson & Johnson launch in 2002 to promote nursing as a positive career choice?"Campaign for Nursing's Future"

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