NURS 131 exam 1 study notes

jasmine's version from 2016-04-18 05:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Leopold maneuvers A series of four types of abdominal palpitation for determining fetal position: Fundal grip, Lateral grip, Pawlick’s grip, 2nd Pelvic grip
Abruptio Placentae Premature partial or complete separation of the placenta from the uterus
Acrocyanosis Bluish color of the hands and feet, not pathological in newborns
Acupressure Treatment method that involves therapeutic massage of points along the body’s energy pathways
Acupuncture Treatment method that involves therapeutic stimulation of points along the body’s energy pathways with thin needles
Apgar Scoring An assignment of numbers to assessment parameters of a newborn at 1 and 5 minutes after birth, named after its developer, Virginia Apgar. Heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color on a score of 0-2 with 0 bad and 2 good. Total score of 0-3: Severe distress, requires resuscitation. Total score of 4-6: Moderate difficulty. Total score of 7-10: Minimal or no difficulty
Areola The pigmented tissue around the nipple
Asphyxia Inadequate oxygenation that causes unconsciousness and, without intervention, death
Atony Lack of muscle tone
Bilirubin Yellow or orange product of the breakdown of hemoglobin
Braxton-Hicks Contraction Painless, ineffective uterine contractions that occur during late pregnancy
Cervix The low narrow end of the uterus that contains its opening
Circumcision Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
Colostrum White to yellowish fluid that precedes breast milk
Counterpressure Application of pressure to the sacrum during contractions
Cradle cap Infant scalp dermatitis manifesting as thick yellowish scales
Cyanosis A bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to excessive concentration of deoxyhemoglobin (hemoglobin not combined with oxygen) in the blood
Dilation Stretching of the opening of the cervix to accommodate childbirth
Ecchymosis Hemorrhagic spot, or bruise, caused by bleeding under the skin and irregularly formed in blue, purple, or brown patches
Edema Accumulation of excess fluid, causing swelling in the cells, in intercellular spaces within tissues, or in potential spaces inside the body
Effacement Thinning and shortening of the cervix in preparation for childbirth
Effleurage Light massage or stroking, usually on the patient’s abdomen, in rhythm with breathing during contractions
Engagement Entrance of the fetal presenting part into the upper pelvic channel or birth canal
Fetus Unborn child still inside the uterus
Episiotomy Incision made in the perineum during childbirth
Fetoscope A stethoscope for listening to fetal heart tones
Friable Easily broken
Fundus Rounded upper portion of the uterus
Hematoma Localized collection of blood underneath the tissues, appearing as a swelling or mass often characterized by a bluish discoloration

Section 2

Question Answer
Hydramnios Excessive amniotic fluid
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Complication of pregnancy that involves excessive vomiting, electrolyte imbalances, weight loss, nutritional deficits, and ketonuria
Hyperglycemia An elevated blood glucose level
Hyperventilation Excessively rapid or deep breathing
Hypoglycemia A low blood glucose level
Hypothermia Body temperature below the expected reference range
Lanugo Fine, downy hair on the fetus after 20 weeks of gestation
Leopold Maneuvers A series of four types of abdominal palpitation for determining fetal position
Let-Down Reflex Release of breast milk in response to oxytocin, also called the milk-ejection reflex
Lightening Descent of the uterus into the pelvic cavity about 2 weeks before term labor
Lochia Vaginal discharge following childbirth
Meconium Odorless, green-tinged, black, sticky initial stools of a newborn
Milk-Ejection Reflex Release of breast milk in response to oxytocin, also called the let-down reflex
Moro Reflex Expected newborn response to a loud noise or other readily perceived stimulus, demonstrated as arm flexion and an embracing posture
Oxygen Saturation A clinical measurement of the percentage of hemoglobin that is bound with oxygen in the blood
Oxytocic A drug that stimulates uterine contractions
Perinatal Referring to the time or process of birth
Perineum A skin- and muscle-covered area over pelvic structures, usually meaning the area between the vagina and the anus in females
Placenta Previa Implantation of the placenta low in the uterus and completely or partially covering the cervix
Popliteal Referring to the posterior part of the leg behind the knee joint
Pre-Eclampsia A complication of middle to late pregnancy that involves hypertension, proteinuria, and hemoconcentration
Quickening Perception of fetal movement
Preterm Referring to the period of a pregnancy prior to 37 weeks of gestation
Rooting Reflex Expected newborn response that involves moving toward whatever touches the mouth and initiating sucking motions

Section 3

Question Answer
Sitz Bath Immersion of the perineum in warm water in a tub or basin
Supine Hypotension A drop in blood pressure due to altered venous return form a gravid uterus exerting pressure on the ascending vena cava
Symphysis Pubis The semi-rigid articulation or union of the two pubic bones in the midline of the lower anterior part of the abdomen
Therapeutic Touch An energy therapy that is useful for promoting relaxation and healing and involves a practitioner moving hands over the patient’s body to detect energy imbalances and then directing balanced energy toward the patient
Translucent Allowing the passage of light
Trimester One of three periods of time, about 3 months each, that comprise a pregnancy
Umbilical Cord The long structure that connects a fetus with the placenta and encases two arteries and one vein surrounded by a clear gel called Wharton’s jelly
Uterus The hollow, muscular female reproductive organ where a fetus develops
Vernix Caseosa A grayish white protective substance that coats fetal skin and has a cream-cheese-like consistency
Viability Capability of living outside the uterus, generally at 20 weeks of gestation and beyond
Frank breech Knees extended and hips flexed
Complete breech Hips and knees flexed
Footling breech One or both feet presenting before the buttocks
Common effect with breech presentation Passage of meconium as the birth canal exerts pressure on the fetal abdomen
Sign of fetal distress Meconium stained amniotic fluid yet not necessarily so with breech presentation
Breast feed At least 8 per day; Generally 8-12; Avoid pacifiers for a least 1 month, when breastfeeding is established
Diapers 2-6 per day until 4th, then 6-8, and at least 3 bowel movement per day
Temperature 97.7-99 degree F
Measured from fundus to symphysis pubis corresponds with Estimated gestational weeks plus or minus 2 cm, and Not accurate before 18-20 weeks or after 31-32 weeks
Below Miscalculation, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal anomoly
Above Hydramnios (excess amniotic fluid accumulation), multiple pregnancy, large gestational fetus, miscalculation
C-section birth assessment Vital signs q15min for 2 h or until stable; Assess fundus and lochia; Assess IV site; Uterus below (-) or above (+) umbilicus; Firmness of uterine fundus assess for bladder distention (boggy or displacement to side?); Assess urine; Assess lochia rubra; Assess abdominal dressing ; Assess pain; Cough and deep breathing and repositioning
Vaginal birth assessment Encourage patient to urinate prior to assessment; Assess pain; Vital signs; Assess abdomen bowel tones
Fundus Height, location, and consistency; 12 hours after birth approximately yet may vary 1 cm above umbilicus after birth, descends into pelvis 1-2 cm per day
Fundus height, location, and consistency Midline in pelvis or displaced laterally to a full bladder
Fundus Boggy Gently massage uterus while supporting lower uterine segment until feels firm; Providers prescribe Pitocin to promote uterine contractions and prevent postpartum hemorrhage
Assess lochia rubra Pad small clots normal
Numerous clots and foul odor Report to provider immediately
Breast feeding and ambulation Increases lochia
Assess thrombosis Redness and tenderness on legs