The ability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding position, motion, and equilibrium. Even if a person is blindfolded, he or she knows through proprioception if an arm is above the head or hanging by the side of the body. The sense of proprioception is disturbed in many neurological disorders. It can sometimes be improved through the use of sensory integration therapy, a type of specialized occupational therapy
A neurological condition caused by periopheral nerve trauma, diabetic or alcohol abuse-induced neuropathy, carcionma, nutritional defieciencies, and human immundodeficiency, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A neurological condition caused by damage to or dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or Parkinson's disease
Central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following painful, often repetitive, stimulation; Can lead to the triggering of a pain response from stimuli which do not normally provoke pain
The point at which a stimulus is perceived as pain and it does not vary significantly among people or in the same person over time
The duration of time or the intensity of pain that an individual will endure before initiating overt pain responses and is generally decreased with repeated exposure to pain
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.”—International Association for the Study of Pain; A protective and complex phenomenon made up of sensory experiences—time, space, intensity—and emotion, cognition, and motivation
The nurse is caring for a client who has experienced a sports-related injury to his knee. During the assessment, what signs of inflammation will the nurse most likely assess?
Pain, Swelling, and warmth
What are the pathophysiological presentations of asthma?
Airway edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production
The nurse is providing instructions to a client who has a prescription for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). What information is priority for the nurse to explain to the client about this medication?
Take with food and water
What are the pathophysiological signs that would indicate a systemic reaction to inflammation?
Tachycardia and tachypnea
What could the nurse do to decrease the client's inflammation?
The nurse is concerned that a client with bowel and bladder dysfunction is at risk for developing an infection. Which actions should the nurse take to help reduce this client's risk for developing an infection?
Provide hygienic care after episodes of incontinence, Monitor intake and output, and use standard precautions when handling linen after episodes of incontinence
The nurse is planning an in-service on preventing infection for the hospital staff nurses on a medical-surgical unit. Which nursing intervention is most effective in reducing the risk of infections?
Perform hand hygiene
The nurse is assessing an 80-year-old client who is recovering following a cholecystectomy. Which factor would increase this client's susceptibility to infection?
Dry skin and surgical incision
The signs and symptoms of a healing wound include which of the following?
The nurse is caring for a client who is experiencing a systemic infection after a total knee replacement. Which diagnostic tests will be used to validate the presence of this infection?
White blood cell and differential, wound culture, and urinalysis
Itching and rash (skin infections), diarrhea, fever (with malaria)
Risk factors of infection
Age (very young and old), poor nutrition, inflammation/trauma, impaired skin integrity/mucous membranes, alteration of normal flora, diabetes, corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, smoking and alcohol use, genetics, chronic disease, physical/emotional stress, and latrogenic infection (HAIs)
5 stages of infectious diseases
Incubation, Prodromal state, Invasion period, Convalescence, and Resolution
Exposure; Silent stage not known when the pathogen gains entry into the host and starts replicating, undergoing colonization. The length of the incubation period depends on the disease, some are very short, whereas others are lengthy, the stage ends when the first sign and symptoms of the disease appear; This period may last from several hours to years
The first onset of signs and symptoms occur (discomfort, tiredness, malaise, runny nose, itchy and dry eyes, cough, colds, conjunctivitis, fever, and so on). This stage generally lasts about one or two days and is considered to be the time when symptoms show that a disease process is taking place
Multiplying rapidly, invading farther and affecting the tissues at site of initial colonization; The disease reaches its highest point of development (severe aches, chills, vomiting, and so on). The symptoms during this stage can help determine one disease from another
In most instances, the individual's immune and inflammatory systems have successfully removed the infectious agent, and symptoms decline; alternately, the disease may be fatal or may enter a latency phase with resolution of symptoms until reactivation at a later time
When damage is minor, no complications occur, and destroyed tissues are capable of regeneration, it is possible to return injured tissues to an approximation of their original structure and physiologic function
Complete return to normal structure and function
The replacement of destroyed tissue to scared tissue
Composed primarily of collagen that seals the lesion and restores tensile strength, yet cannot execute the physiologic functions of destroyed tissue
Healing always involves processes that
1) fill in, 2) Seal (epithelialization), and 3) shrink the wound (contraction)
Describes the act of establishing infection
The capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease; For example, measles virus is of low virulence; rabies virus is highly virulent
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a highly transmissible respiratory infection, crossed international borders in the winter of 2002. What terms are used to describe the outbreak of SARS?
Epidemic and pandemic
The clinical picture, or presentation of a disease in the body is called what?
Symptomatology of the disease
All microorganisms can be ____ pathogens capable of producing an infectious disease when the health and immunity of the host have been severely weakened; Acquired from client's own body
Infectious agents produce products or substances called virulence factors that make it easier for them to cause disease. What are virulence factors?
Toxins, adhesion factors, evasive and invasive factors
Evasive factors, one type of virulence factor, are factors produced by infectious microorganisms to keep the host's immune system from destroying the microorganism. What are evasive factors?
Capsules, Slime, and Mucous layer
Invasive virulence factors
Phospholipases and collagenases
Sometimes the host's white blood cells are unable to eliminate the microorganism, but the body is able to contain the dissemination of the pathogen. What is this called?
What is the term for parasitic relationships between microorganisms and the human body in which the human body is harmed?
An antibiotic is considered this if it causes irreversible and lethal damage to the bacterial pathogen
An antibiotic is considered this if its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth are reversed when the agent is eliminated
Describes the presence, multiplication, and subsequent injury within a host by another living organism
Relationship is one in which only the infecting organism benefits from the relationship and the host either gains nothing from the relationship or sustains injury from the interaction
Characteristics and microscopic morphology are used in combination to describe bacteria