NURS 123 Medication prefixes and suffixes

jasmine's version from 2016-03-21 22:58

Section 1

Question Answer
Agonist Produces an action
Antagonist Opposes the action
Direct-binding Agonist Acts just like a neurotransmitter, binding directly to the receptor site – this direct bind allows the recipient to experience the effects of the drug as if they were released directly into the brain. Examples of direct-binding agonist drugs include dopamine, apomorphine, and nicotine
Indirect-acting Agonist Enhances the neurotransmitter actions by stimulating neurotransmitters’ release, increasing the emissions. An example of an indirect-binding agonist is cocaine
Direct-acting Antagonist Works by taking up the space present on receptors otherwise occupied by neurotransmitters. The end result is that neurotransmitters themselves are blocked from binding to the receptors. The most common example of a drug belonging to this category is Atropine
Indirect-acting Antagonist Works by inhibiting the release or production of neurotransmitters are known as indirect-acting antagonists. An example of this type of drug is Reserpine
Local Anesthesia An anesthetic drug (which can be given as a shot, spray, or ointment) numbs only a small, specific area of the body (for example, a foot, hand, or patch of skin). With local anesthesia, a person is awake or sedated, depending on what is needed. Local anesthesia lasts for a short period of time and is often used for minor outpatient procedures (when patients come in for surgery and can go home that same day). The medicine used can numb the area during the procedure and for a short time afterwards to help control post-surgery discomfort.
General Anesthesia The goal is to make and keep a person completely unconscious (or "asleep") during the operation, with no awareness or memory of the surgery. General anesthesia can be given through an IV (which requires sticking a needle into a vein, usually in the arm) or by inhaling gases or vapors by breathing into a mask or tube
Regional Anesthesia An anesthetic drug is injected near a cluster of nerves, numbing a larger area of the body (such as below the waist, like epidurals given to women in labor). This is generally used to make a person more comfortable during and after the surgical procedure. This and general anesthesia are often combined
With general anesthesia, the anesthesiologist uses a combination of various medication to do things like Relieve anxiety, keep an individual asleep, minimize pain during surgery and relieve pain afterward (using drugs called analgesics), relax the muscles, which helps to keep an individual still, and block out the memory of the surgery
Potassium-sparing diuretics Drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; They are used as adjunctive therapy, together with other drugs, in the treatment of hypertension and management of congestive heart failure
Cef-Cephalosporins (Antibiotics); For example, cefadroxil, cefaclor, cefixime, and ceftibuten
Ceph-Cephalosporins (Antibiotics); For example, cephalexin, cephapirin, cephradine
Cort-Coricosteroids (Anti-inflammatory); For example, cortisone
-dopa Anti-Parkinson; Anti-parkinson agents aim to replace dopamine either by drugs that release dopamine or those that mimic the action of dopamine. Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of movement that occurs due to dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia. Antiparkinson agents attempt to replace dopamine and treat or halt the symptoms such as tremor, hypokinesia, and so on; For example, Levodopa and Carbidopa-trade name Sinemet
Rifa-Anti-tuberculines; For example, rifamate, rifampin, rifapentine, rifater
Sulf-Sulfonamides (Antibiotics); For example, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazole, sulfisoxazole
-actonePotassium-sparing diuretics; For example, aldactone, spironolactone
-aneGeneral anesthetics; For example, cyclohexane, ethane, fluorane
-aseThrombolytics (Clot-busters [drug used to dissolve blood clots]); For example, eminase, retavase, streptokinase
-azoleAnti-fungals; For example, butoconazole, econazole, fluconazole
-asosinAlpha blockers (Adrenergic antagonists [blocks the action of catecholamines at the adrenergic receptors. It is thus a type of sympatholytic]); For example, doxazosin, prazosin, terazosin
-barbitalBarbiturates (Sedative-hypnotics); For example, amobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital
-caineLocal anesthetics; For example, bupivacaine, cocaine, lidocaine, xylocaine
-calci-Calcium and vitamin D supplements; For example, calciferol, calcitrol, ergocalciferol
-cillinPenicillins (Anti-biotic); For example, ampicillin, penicillin
-ciclovirAnti-virals; For example, famciclovir, ganciclovir
-cox- NSAIDS (Anti-inflammatory; COX2 inhibitor
-curiumNeuromuscular blocker (interferes locally with the transmission or reception of impulses from motor nerves [neurotransmitter or hormone] to skeletal muscles); For example, atracurium
-curoniumNeuromuscular blocker (interferes locally with the transmission or reception of impulses from motor nerves [neurotransmitter or hormone] to skeletal muscles); For example, vecuronium, pipecuronium, rocuronium
-cyclineTetracyclines (Antibiotics); For example, demeclocycline, doxycycline, minocycline
-cyclovirAnti-virals; For example, acyclovir, valacyclovir

Section 2

Question Answer
-dazoleNitroimidazole (Anti-mircrobial); For example, metronidazole
-dipineCalcium channel blockers; For example, amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nifedipine
-dronateBi-phosphonates (Anti-resorptive medicines, which means they slow or stop the natural process that dissolves bone tissue, resulting in maintained or increased bone density and strength. This may prevent the development of osteoporosis); For example, alendronate, etidronate, pamidronate, risedronate
-ergot-Ergotamines (Anti-migraine); For example, ergotamine, dihydroxyergotamine
-floxacinFleoroquinolones (Antibiotics); For example, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin
-gliptin Anti-diabetic; inhibitor of DPP-4 enzyme; For example, sitagliptin
-glitazone Anti-diabetic; thiazolidinedione; For example, pioglitazone
-ineStimulants; For example, amphetamine, caffeine, terbutaline, theophylline
-iramine Anti-histamine; For example, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine
-lamBenzodiazepines (Anxiolytics [relieves anxiety]); For example, alprazolam, midazolam
-lamide Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor; For example, acetazolamide
-leuLeukotriene Modifiers (Leukotriene inhibitor); Tones down inflammation; Used to treat and prevent chronic asthma and allergic rhinitis; For example, zileuton
-lolBeta blockers (adrenergic antagonists [blocks the action of catecholamines at the adrenergic receptors. It is thus a type of sympatholytic]); For example, atenolol, propanolol, sodalol
-loneCorticosteroids (Anti-inflammatory); For example, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, triamcinolone
-luk-Leukotriene Modifiers (Leukotriene inhibitor); Tones down inflammation; Used to treat and prevent chronic asthma and allergic rhinitis; For example, montelukast, zafirlukast
-micinAminoglycosides (Antibiotics); For example, gentamicin
-mine Anti-histamine; For example, diphenhydramine
-mycinAminoglycosides/Macrolides (Antibiotics); For example, erythromycin, tobramycin, vancomycin
-navirHIV/AIDS (Anti-virals); For example, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir
-pamBenzodiazepines (anxiolytics [relieves anxiety]); For example, diazepam, lorazepam
-parinAnti-coagulant; For example, enoxiparin
-prazoleProton pump inhibitors (Anti-ulcer); For example, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole
-prilACE inhibitors (Anti-hypertensives); For example, benazepril, captopril, moexipril, quinapril
-profenNSAIDS (Anti-inflammatory); For example, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen
-quineAnti-parasitics; For example, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine
-sartanAngiotensin-II receptor antagonists (prevents angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on the muscles surrounding blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels enlarge (dilate) and blood pressure is reduced); For example, candesartan, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan
-semideLoop diuretic (a powerful diuretic that inhibits resorption of water and sodium from the loop of Henle); For example, furosemide
-setron5-HT3 receptor antagonists (Anti-emetics); For example, dolansetron, granisetron, ondansetron
-soneCorticosteroids (Anti-inflammatory); For example, cortisone, dexamethasone, prednisone

Section 3

Question Answer
-statinHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, or statins (Any of a class of lipid-lowering drugs that reduce serum cholesterol levels by inhibiting a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol); For example, rosuvastatin
-stigmineCholinergics (Any of various drugs enhance or mimic the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary transmitter of nerve impulses within the parasympathetic nervous system—i.e., that part of the autonomic nervous system that contracts smooth muscles, dilates blood vessels, increases bodily secretions, and slows the heart rate); For example, neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine
-opium Anti-Cholinergics (blocks the physiological action of acetylcholine, especially as a neurotransmitter); Used to treat diseases like asthma, incontinence, gastrointestinal cramps, and muscular spasms; For example, Ipratropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide
-stineAnti-neoplastics (Anti-tumor); For example, carmustine, lomustine, vinblastine, vincristine
-terolBronchodilators (widens of the bronchi, e.g., any of those taken by inhalation for the alleviation of asthma); For example, albuterol, bitolterol, levalbuterol, pirbuterol
-thiazideThiazide diuretics (often used to treat hypertension [high blood pressure] and edema [such as that caused by heart, liver, or kidney disease]); For example, benzthiazide, hydrochlorothiazide
-tidineH2 receptor antagonists (Anti-ulcer); For example, cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, ranitidine
-trate Anti-anginals; isosorbide dinitrate
-triptanAnti-migraines; For example, naratriptan, rizatriptan
-triptylineTricyclics (Anti-depressants); For example, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, protriptyline
-virAnti-virals; For example, abacivir, zanamivir
-vudineHIV/AIDS (Anti-virals); For example, lamivudine, stavudine, zidovudine
-zepam, -zolamBenzodiazepines (anxiolytics [relieves anxiety]); For example, alprazolam, midazolam
-zinePhenothiazines (Anti-psychotics and Anti-emetics); For example, chlorpromazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine
-zolineNasal decongestants; For example, oxymetazoline, zylometazoline

Section 4

Question Answer
Expected results of Albuterol Prevention or relief of bronchospasm
Expected results of Formoterol Bronchodilation
Expected results of Budesonide Management of the symptoms of chronic asthma; Improvement in asthma symptoms
Expected results of Theophylline Increased ease in breathing; Clearing of lung fields on auscultation
Expected results of Ipratropium Decreased dyspnea; Improved breath sounds; Decrease in rhinorrhea from perennial rhinitis or the common cold
Expected results of fluticasone Management of the symptoms of chronic asthma
Expected results of Prednisone Decrease in presenting symptoms with minimal systemic side effects; Suppression of the inflammatory and immune responses in autoimmune disorders, allergic reactions, and neoplasms; Management of symptoms in adrenal insufficiency
Expected results of Montelukast Prevention of and reduction in symptoms of asthma; Decrease in severity of allergic rhinitis; Prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

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