Which statement about the advances in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn is false?
Administering oxygen to mothers during preterm labor to increase their arterial oxygen before birth of the fetus; Administering glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor accelerates the maturation of the fetus's lungs; Instilling exogenous surfactant down an endotracheal tube of infants weighing less than 1000 g; and Supporting the infant's respiratory function by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are all true
The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born after how many weeks of gestation?
Which type of croup is most common?
Why is nasal congestion a serious threat to young infants?
They are obligatory nose breathers
Chest wall compliance in infants is what compared to adults?
The chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn is
Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma?
Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
What medical term is used to identify the accumulation of air in the pleural space?
Pneumothorax; Pneumothorax is the presence of air or gas in the pleural space caused by a rupture in the visceral pleura (which surrounds the lungs) or the parietal pleura and chest wall
Clinical manifestations of inspiratory crackles, increased tactile fremitus, egophony, and whispered pectoriloquy are indicative of which respiratory condition?
Pneumonia; Physical examination may reveal signs of pulmonary consolidation, encompassing all of these and supporting a diagnosis
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) results from which alteration?
Narrowed pulmonary capillaries; It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction with an overproduction of vasoconstrictors (i.e., thromboxane and endothelin), and decreased production of vasodilators (i.e., nitric oxide and prostacyclin), resulting in narrowed pulmonary capillaries
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is best described as a tumor that causes which alterations?
Airway obstruction and atelectasis; Typically, the tumors are centrally located near the hila and project into bronchi. Because of this central location, non-productive cough or hemoptysis (coughing up blood) is common. Pneumonia and atelectasis are often associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Chest pain is a late symptom associated with large tumors. These tumors can remain fairly well localized, and tend not to metastasize until late in the course of the disease
What medical term is used to identify the presence of pus in the pleural space?
Fluid in the pleural space characterizes which condition?
Which of the following is true regarding respiratory alkalosis?
The PaCO2 is less than 35 mmHg
Which of the following parameters is the respiratory component of acid-base status?
What define acidosis in a human?
What is the normal value for arterial pH?
7.35 to 7.45
What could cause tissue hypoxia with normal arterial oxygenation?
Inadequate cardiac output
Which of the following would be the best indicator of tissue oxygenation?
What is the normal value for CaO2?
Which of the following shifts the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the left?
What is the most common physiologic cause of hypoxemia in patients with lung disease?
Which statement is true regarding hypoxemia?
It occurs when the patient’s PaO2 is lower than predicted; It indicates tissue oxygenation is inadequate, always considered a severe disorder, and independent of age of patient are not correct
What is the primary method of transporting oxygen in the blood?
Bound to hemoglobin
Pinking up of the hand is normal if it occurs within how many seconds?
Which of the following systems is the primary operant to rid the body of fluid accumulation in non-pathologic conditions?
Which of the following are anatomic alterations found with emphysema?
Hyperinflation, Decreased surface area for gas exchange, and Weakened distal airways
Is most closely associated with chronic bronchitis, and leads to the destruction of alveolar walls
Destruction of alveoli, abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis, and enlargement and destruction of alveolar walls with loss of elasticity and trapping of air
Obstruction results from
Changes in lung tissues rather than mucus productions and inflammation as in chronic bronchitis
The major mechanism of airflow limitation is
Loss of elastic recoil
Pneumonia is infection of
The lower respiratory tract caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites; Mortality is highest among the elderly
Increased airway resistance, and decreased expiratory flow rate
Ventilatory support may be indicated when the VC falls below what level?
10 ml/kg; 30, 45, and 65 ml/kg are not correct
Which of the following is the cardinal sign of increased work of breathing?
What is a cardinal sign and what are the five cardinal signs?
It is the primary or major clinical sign symptom by which a diagnosis is made; Rubor (redness), Calor (increased heat), Tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), and Functio laesa (loss of function)
Which of the following are associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to decreased ventilatory drive?
Brainstem lesions, encephalitis, and hypothyroidism
Which of the following clinical signs is most often associated with hypoxemia due to shunt?
“White” chest radiograph
Hypoxemia can be caused by which of the following?
diffusion impairment, alveolar hypoventilation, V/Q mismatch, and intrapulmonary shunting
Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) ratio
The ratio between the amount of air getting to the alveoli (the alveolar ventilation, V, in mL/min), and the amount of blood being sent to the lungs (the cardiac output, Q, in mL/min).
Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) mismatch
A defect which occurs in the lungs whereby ventilation (the exchange of air between the lung and environment) and perfusion (the passage of blood through the lungs) are not evenly matched; Typically found with COPD
A diagnosis of respiratory failure can be made if which of the following are present?