NURS 121 Study

yibaraze's version from 2016-06-16 20:55

Section 1

Question Answer
A person has low sodium levels. Which response will this person’s body initiate in the renal system? Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) Rationale: A major hormonal regulator of renal blood flow is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which can increase systemic arterial pressure and increase sodium reabsorption. The release of renin is principally triggered by decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles, which reduces stretch of the juxtaglomerular cells; decreased sodium chloride concentrations in the distal convoluted tubule; sympathetic nerve stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors on the juxtaglomerular cells and the release of prostaglandins.
Mechanisms that protect the urinary tract from infection include Acidic urine; Rationale: The low pH (acidic urine) is a mechanism that reduces the likelihood of infection
A child has a UTI. Which assessment finding is most typical in this condition?Incontinence in a previously dry child; Rationale: Infants and young children may present only with fever of undetermined origin and others may present with urinary tract symptoms of frequency; urgency; enuresis or incontinence in a previously dry child; abdominal, flank, or back pain; foul-smelling urine; and sometimes hematuria.
The following factors affect elimination Fluid and food intake, medications, surgical and diagnostic procedures, and toileting habits
The nurse understands that it is necessary to document after an enema is administered. The following are all to be included in the documentation The volume and type of solution administered; how the patient tolerated the procedure; The results obtained (amount, consistency, color), and the date, time, and type of enema administered
If a person's glomerular filtration membrane (visceral epithelium) has been injured, which structure would be affected?Podocytes, or visceral epithelial cells, are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus
The bladder and internal urethral sphincter are innervated by theParasympathetic nervous system
A person has low sodium levels. Which response will this person's body initiate in the renal system? Stimulation of theRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
One of the forces favoring filtration in the glomerulus isCapillary hydrostatic pressure
The primary function of the loop of Henle is toEstablish a hyperosmotic state within the medullary interstitial fluid
A person has a lesion on the lower neuron that involves the sacral micturition center. Which condition is the person experiencing?Detrusor areflexia: a failure of the detrusor muscle to contract even though the bladder has reached or exceeded its capacity, resulting in failure to empty the bladder completely on urination
Mechanisms that protect the urinary tract from infection include Acidic urine
Nephrotic syndrome producesSusceptibility to infection
A person with acute kidney injury is prescribed glucose and insulin. The nurse understands this prescription is intended to Reduce serum potassium concentration
Individuals with chronic renal failure haveHypocalcemia
Which statement is correct regarding fluid and electrolyte balance in the infant?The infant produces a more dilute urine when compared to an adult
A child with unilateral renal agenesis is seen in the clinic. The nurse realizes the child Has a hypertrophied kidney
Edema with nephrotic syndrome is associated with increased Aldosterone concentration
A child has a UTI. Which assessment finding is most typical in this condition?Incontinence in a previously dry child
A patient exhibits symptoms including hematuria with red blood cell casts and proteinuria exceeding 3 to 5 g/day, with albumin as the major protein. These data suggest the presence of which disorder?Glomerulonephritis
A person has low sodium levels. The response this person's body will initiate in the renal system will be theRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

Section 2

Question Answer
Focus on Respiratory Acidosis Restoring adequate ventilation and gas exchange
Pathophysiology of Acute Respiratory Acidosis Hypercapnia affects neurological function and cardiovascular system; CO2 rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier; Cerebral blood vessels dilate; If the condition continues, intracranial pressure increases and papilledema develops (swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve where it enters the retina); and Peripheral dilation occurs, and the pulse rate increases to maintain cardiac output
Pathophysiology of Chronic Respiratory Acidosis PaCO2 increases over time and remains elevated; Kidneys retain HCO3, increasing HCO3 levels; and pH often remains close to the normal range due to adequate metabolic compensation
Pharmacologic Therapy for Respiratory Acidosis Bronchodilators to open airways and antibiotics to treat respiratory infections
Clinical manifestations of acute respiratory acidosis Headache, warmed, flushed skin, elevated pulse, blurred vision, irritability, altered mental status, decreased LOC, and cardiac arrest
Clinical manifestation of chronic respiratory acidosis Weakness, dull headache, sleep disturbances with daytime sleepiness, impaired memory, and personality changes
Acute lung conditions that impair alveolar gas exchange Pneumonia, acute pulmonary edema, choking, and near-drowning
Chronic lung diseases Asthma, cystic fibrosis, emphysema
Diagnostic tests ABGs ( arterial, blood, gas), serum electrolytes, pulmonary function tests (for chronic conditions)
Respiratory support Pulmonary hygiene: deep breathing and coughing exercises, breathing treatments, and percussion and drainage
Assessment Health history and physical examination
Diagnosis Impaired gas exchange, ineffective airway clearance, anxiety, risk for injury
Planning Involves both restoration of acid-base balance and appropriate treatment for any underlying disease or cause
Implementation Frequently assess respiratory status: rate, depth, effort, and O2 saturation levels. Also assess LOC
Pursed lip breathing Promotes CO2 elimination
Anxiety may be eliminated with Improved ventilation and oxygenation
Client teaching should be focused on the Problem that caused the respiratory acidosis