NURS 121 Asthma and COPD

jasmine's version from 2016-02-10 05:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Asthma Chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing.
Airway remodeling Asthma in early life may lead to irreversible decline of pulmonary function in adulthood as a result of permanent structural changes.
Edema May be found in airway tissues, swelling caused by excess fluid in bodily tissue.
Common triggers for acute asthma attack Allergens, respiratory tract infection, exercise, inhaled irritants, and emotional upsets.
Inflammatory mediators Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, cytokines, bradykinin, growth factors.
Hyperventilation Fast respiration
Hyper-responsiveness Exaggerated Broncho-constrictor response
Status asthmaticus Is a severe, prolonged form of asthma that is difficult to treat.
Airway resistance The effort or force needed to move oxygen through the trachea to the lungs.
Retractions Sunken areas seen between the ribs during inspirations.
PEER (peak expiratory flow reading) Provides an objective measure of lung function that allows clients to monitor symptoms and communicate their severity to others.

Section 2

Question Answer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (related to respiratory infection) used to describe a specific progressive disorder that slowly alters the structures of the respiratory system over time. Airway narrowing and loss or supportive tissue.
Sputum Mucus or mucopurulent matter
Air trapping Decreased airflow with exhalation.
Bronchitis Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes.
Chronic bronchitis Disorder of excessive bronchial mucous secretion. (productive cough lasting 3 or more mos. in 2 consecutive years.) cigarette smoke is a major factor
Emphysema Destruction of the walls of the alveoli, with resulting enlargement of abnormal air spaces.
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) Amount of air that can be exhaled in 1 second as measured by a spirometer.
Barrel chest Air trapping and hyperinflation increase the anterposterior chest diameter.
Tripod position Position of sitting and leaning forward.
Pursed lip breathing Exhaling through a narrow opening between the lips to prolong expiratory phase to promote more alveolar emptying while maintaining open alveoli.
Hypercapnia (too much carbon dioxide in the blood) Chronic in COPD clients, always important to monitor while on oxygen therapy to avoid respiratory failure due to increase in PaCO2 levels.

Section 3

Question Answer
Diagnostic tests useful for clients with asthma CBC with differential if infection is suspected; ABG to monitor acid base balance; Pulmonary function studies; Chest x ray; Oxygen saturation monitoring; Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring
Diagnostic tests for COPD also for emphysema and chronic bronchitis include Pulmonary function testing: based on age, height, weight, and sex; Complete blood count w/ white blood cell differential; Continuing below with definitions
Ventilation perfusion scanning Determine v q mismatch ventilated but not perfused, perfused but not ventilated.;
Serum antitrypsin levels Drawn to screen for deficiency, particularly in clients with a family history of obstructive airway disease.
Arterial blood gas Evaluate gas exchange.
Pulse oximetry Monitor O2 levels.
Exhaled carbon dioxide Evaluate alveolar ventilation.
Chest x ray COPD clients will show small white patches indicative of the hyperinflated alveolar sacs filled with secretions that are common in emphysema.
Prophylaxis Action taken to prevent disease, especially by specified means or against a specified disease.
Antiseptics Inhibits growth of microorganisms
Disinfectants Agents that destroy pathogens other than spores.
Bacterial agent Destroys bacteria
Bacteriostatic agent Prevents the growth and reproduction of some bacteria.
Body substance isolation (BSI) System employs generic infection control precautions for all clients.
Bloodborne pathogens Carried in blood, hep b, hep c, HIV.
Airborne precautions Air droplet 5 microns, measles(rubella), varicella, TB
Droplet precautions Particle droplets larger than 5 microns, diphtheria (pharyngeal), pertussis, mumps, rubella, influenza virus, pneumonia.
Contact precaution Transmitted by direct client contact or contact with items in client’s environment such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin, wound infections, enteric infections.
Occupational exposure Skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee’s duties.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Measures how far erythrocytes settle in a tube over a given amount of time, usually an hour. Normal is 0-15 mm/h for males and 0-20 mm/h for women.
C reactive protein CRP test Found in blood produce by liver and fat cells in response to inflammatory response
Peritonitis Inflammation and bacterial infection of the entire abdominal area.
Cardiovascular Disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke
Angina Heart and chest pain- ischemia (reduced oxygenation to the heart).
Thrombosis Blood clot inside blood vessel

Section 4

Question Answer
Hypertension Systolic of 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher.
Map Mean arterial pressure
Systolic blood pressure Highest pressure exerted against the arterial walls at systole.
Diastolic Lowest pressure exerted during diastole
Pulse pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure, usually 40 mmgH
Peripheral vascular resistance Imposing forces or impedance to blood flow. Determined by viscosity(thickness), length of vessel (longer the greater resistance to blood flow), diameter of the vessel, the smaller the vessel, the greater the friction against the walls of the vessel.
Hypertensive Emergency (malignant hypertension) Systolic greater than 180 and diastolic higher than 120, immediate treatment within an hour, to prevent cardiac, renal, and vascular damage.
Preeclampsia Develops after 20th week of pregnancy.
Eclampsia Serious complication of preeclampsia, one or 2 seizures during pregnancy.
HELLP syndrome Life-threatening pregnancy complication usually considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. Both conditions usually occur during the later stages of pregnancy, or sometimes after childbirth.H-hemolysis, EL- elevated liver enzymes, LP-low platelet count.
Hypertensive encephalopathy Extremely high blood pressure, altered level of consciousness, increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, and seizures, may develop.
Primary hypertension Persistently elevated systemic blood pressure.
Primary hypertension develops from interactions such as Excess SNS with overstimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, resulting in vasoconstriction and increased cardiac output; Altered function of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and responses to factors like sodium or overall fluid; Other chemical mediators; Interaction between insulin resistance hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial function may be cause of hypertension.
Secondary Hypertension Elevated blood pressure resulting from an identifiable underlying problem.
Pathophysiology of causes of secondary hypertension Kidney disease, Coarctation of the aorta, Endocrine disorders, Neurological disorders, Drug use, Pregnancy
Kidney disease Any disease that affects renal blood flow.
Coarctation of the aorta Narrowing of aorta
Endocrine disorders Adrenal gland disorders (cushing syndrome)
Neurological disorders Increased intracranial pressure.
Diagnostic Tests for Hypertension ECG; Urinalysis; Blood glucose; Hematocrit; Serum potassium, creatinine, and calcium; Cholesterol and lipoprotein profile, including HDL. LDL and triglycerides.

Section 5

Question Answer
Depression Disorder characterized by a sad or despondent mood or loss of interest in usual activities.
Major depressive episode Characterized by a change in several aspects of an individual’s emotional state and functioning consistently over a period of 14 days or longer. (feelings of sadness, discouragement, or hopelessness).
Major depressive disorder May consist of single episode or may exhibit as recurrent major depression at various points in life.
Ahedonia Individuals that are experiencing MDD and often no longer enjoy activities that they previously did, such as hobbies, sports, and sex.
Insomnia Sleep disturbances (inability to fall or stat asleep)
Hypersomnia Individual sleeps for prolonged periods of the night as well as during the day but still wakes up tired and fatigued.
Anergy Fatigue and decreased energy
Psychomotor retardation Thinking and body movements are noticeably slowed and speech is slowed and absent.
Persistent depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder Describes chronic depression for the majority of most days for at least 2 years.
Adjustment disorder with depressed mood Change in mood and affect following a stressor, such as the end of a relationship, multiple stressors may also be called situational depression.
Resilience Capacity to respond successfully to stressors.
Puerperium Time immediately following child birth, when physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy return to normal.
Postpartum blues “baby blues” a common occurrence after child birth, which symptoms include mood swings, feeling sad, anxious or overwhelmed, crying for no reason, decreased appetite, sleeping problems.
Postpartum depression Associated with pregnancy and recognized to begin during pregnancy 50% of the time and is called Major depressive disorder with peripartum onset. Occurs during or in the first 4 weeks following birth.
Maternal role attainment (MRA) Woman learns mothering behaviors and becomes comfortable with her identity as a mother. Which has 4 stages: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, and Personal; Occurs within 3-10 months after birth
Anticipatory Stage During pregnancy
Formal stage Begins when child is born
Informal stage Begins when mother makes own choices about mothering
Personal stage Comfortable that she is a mother
Engrossment Dad’s sense of absorption, preoccupation, and interest in the infant demonstrated during early contract.
Postpartum psychosis Mood episodes with psychotic features occurs in 1 in every 500-1,000 deliveries. Considered an emergency because of risk of suicide or infanticide.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light, biological rhythms, and mood.