CBC with differential if infection is suspected; ABG to monitor acid base balance; Pulmonary function studies; Chest x ray; Oxygen saturation monitoring; Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring
Diagnostic tests for COPD also for emphysema and chronic bronchitis include
Pulmonary function testing: based on age, height, weight, and sex; Complete blood count w/ white blood cell differential; Continuing below with definitions
Ventilation perfusion scanning
Determine v q mismatch ventilated but not perfused, perfused but not ventilated.;
Serum antitrypsin levels
Drawn to screen for deficiency, particularly in clients with a family history of obstructive airway disease.
Arterial blood gas
Evaluate gas exchange.
Monitor O2 levels.
Exhaled carbon dioxide
Evaluate alveolar ventilation.
Chest x ray
COPD clients will show small white patches indicative of the hyperinflated alveolar sacs filled with secretions that are common in emphysema.
Action taken to prevent disease, especially by specified means or against a specified disease.
Inhibits growth of microorganisms
Agents that destroy pathogens other than spores.
Prevents the growth and reproduction of some bacteria.
Body substance isolation (BSI)
System employs generic infection control precautions for all clients.
Carried in blood, hep b, hep c, HIV.
Air droplet 5 microns, measles(rubella), varicella, TB
Systolic of 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher.
Mean arterial pressure
Systolic blood pressure
Highest pressure exerted against the arterial walls at systole.
Lowest pressure exerted during diastole
Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure, usually 40 mmgH
Peripheral vascular resistance
Imposing forces or impedance to blood flow. Determined by viscosity(thickness), length of vessel (longer the greater resistance to blood flow), diameter of the vessel, the smaller the vessel, the greater the friction against the walls of the vessel.
Hypertensive Emergency (malignant hypertension)
Systolic greater than 180 and diastolic higher than 120, immediate treatment within an hour, to prevent cardiac, renal, and vascular damage.
Develops after 20th week of pregnancy.
Serious complication of preeclampsia, one or 2 seizures during pregnancy.
Life-threatening pregnancy complication usually considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. Both conditions usually occur during the later stages of pregnancy, or sometimes after childbirth.H-hemolysis, EL- elevated liver enzymes, LP-low platelet count.
Extremely high blood pressure, altered level of consciousness, increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, and seizures, may develop.
Persistently elevated systemic blood pressure.
Primary hypertension develops from interactions such as
Excess SNS with overstimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, resulting in vasoconstriction and increased cardiac output; Altered function of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and responses to factors like sodium or overall fluid; Other chemical mediators; Interaction between insulin resistance hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial function may be cause of hypertension.
Elevated blood pressure resulting from an identifiable underlying problem.
Pathophysiology of causes of secondary hypertension
Kidney disease, Coarctation of the aorta, Endocrine disorders, Neurological disorders, Drug use, Pregnancy
Any disease that affects renal blood flow.
Coarctation of the aorta
Narrowing of aorta
Adrenal gland disorders (cushing syndrome)
Increased intracranial pressure.
Diagnostic Tests for Hypertension
ECG; Urinalysis; Blood glucose; Hematocrit; Serum potassium, creatinine, and calcium; Cholesterol and lipoprotein profile, including HDL. LDL and triglycerides.