NURS 111

jasmine's version from 2015-10-13 00:59

Section 1

Question Answer
HIPAAHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Define Affordable Health Care ActKey provisions are intended to extend coverage to millions of uninsured Americans, to implement measures that will lower health care costs and improve system efficiency, and to eliminate industry practices that include denial of coverage due to pre-existing conditions
Define HealthState of complete physical, mental, social well-being, not merely absence of disease or infirmity
Define Health Individually By Each PersonAbility to carry out activities of choice; How well they feel; Presence or absence of illness
Define WellnessState of well-being; Process-Never a static state
Define Travis' Health/Illness ContinuumIndividual can move through good health, normal health, poor health, extremely poor health, and eventually to death; Individuals can move back and forth within day by day; No distinct boundary across which individuals move from health to illness or from illness back to health
Physical WellnessThe ability to carry out daily tasks, achieve fitness, maintain adequate nutrition and proper body fat levels, avoid abusing drugs and alcohol or using tobacco products, and generally practice positive lifestyle habits
Spiritual WellnessThe belief in some force (i.e., nature, science, religion, or a higher power) that serves to unite human beings and provide meaning and purpose to life; It includes an individual's own morals, values, and ethics
Social WellnessThe ability to interact successfully with other individuals and within one's environment, to develop and maintain intimacy with significant others, and to develop respect and tolerance for those with different opinions and beliefs
Emotional WellnessThe ability to manage stress and to express emotions appropriately; Wellness involves the ability to recognize, accept, and express feelings and to accept one's limitations
Intellectual WellnessThe ability to learn and use information effectively for personal, family, and career development; Wellness involves striving for continued growth and learning to deal effectively with new challenges
Occupational WellnessThe ability to achieve a balance between work and leisure time; The individual's beliefs about education, employment, and home influence personal satisfaction and relationships with others
Environmental WellnessThe ability to promote health measures that improve the standard of living and quality of life in the community and includes influences such as food, water, and air
Define Well-beingA subjective perception of vitality and feeling well that can be described objectively, experienced, and measured; Can be plotted on a Health/Illness Continuum
Define IllnessA highly personal state in which the individual's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, development, or spiritual functioning is diminished; May or may not be related to disease
Define DiseaseAn alteration in body functions that reduces the capacities or shortens the normal life span
Define Acute IllnessTypically characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short duration
Define Chronic IllnessOne that lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer, and often for the duration of the individual's life
Define Illness BehaviorA coping mechanism, involves ways that individuals describe, monitor, and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the healthcare system
3 Steps of Well-Being 1) Awareness; 2) Education; and 3) Growth
S.P.I.E.S. O.E. WellnessSocial, Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, Spiritual, Occupational, and Environmental

Section 2

Question Answer
Define Health PromotionBehavior motivated by desire to increase well-being and actualize human health potential
Define Health Protection, Or Disease PreventionBehavior motivated by desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness
Define Health RestorationFocuses on the ill client and extends from early detection of disease through helping the client during the recovery period
External VariablesFamily practices; Socioeconomic influence; Cultural background; Accessibility to care; Resources for the ability to control behaviors and choose healthy or unhealthy activities
Internal VariablesBiological, psychological, and cognitive dimensions; Developmental stage; Intellectual background; Concept of functioning; Emotional factors; Spiritual factors
MaslowPhysiological needs, Safety, Belonging and Love, Self-esteem, Self-actualization
Primary PreventionFocuses on health promotion and illness prevention
Secondary PreventionAimed at early disease detection and treatment to prevent the progression of the disease and its associated symptoms; Services include the diagnosis and treatment of disease; Screening process
Tertiary PreventionThe restoration of health following an illness or accident and includes rehabilitation and palliative services; Goal is to minimize effects of disease or disability; Restoring function and decreasing disease-related complications of an already established disease
Variables Influencing HealthInternal and external variables (i.e., genetic makeup, age, sex, culture, and sometimes geographic environment, to include health behaviors from family practices, socioeconomic influence)
Biological DimensionGenetic makeup influences characteristics, innate temperament, activity level, and intellectual potential; Can impact susceptibility to specific diseases;
Gender and Age InfluencesCertain acquired and genetic diseases are more common in one sex than in the other, and some may occur infrequently in younger yet rare in older, respectively
Developmental InfluencesInfants lack physiological and psychological maturity; Toddlers prone to fall; Adolescents conform to peers, hence risk-taking behaviors
Psychological DimensionMind-body interactions and self-concept (i.e., the effect of stress and the body and self-esteem and body image)
Cognitive, or Intellectual, DimensonLife style choices, spiritual and religious beliefs
Internal Locus of ControlIndividuals who believe that they can impact their own health and well-being
External Locus of ControlIndividuals who believe their health is controlled by forces outside of their control

Section 3

Question Answer
Concept MapA visual representation of a nursing plan of care in a patterned diagram with data and ideas. Visual images enhance clinical reasoning by showing how nursing diagnoses, goals, interventions, and evaluations relate to each other in a logical and patterned way: Concrete critical thinking
Nursing Plan of CareWritten or electronic guideline that organizes information about an individual client's or family's care.
Guidelines for Plan of CareAssessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
AssessmentSubjective and objective data collection to support nursing diagnosis. "What is the problem look like?"
DiagnosisPriority clinical conclusion based on assessment data. "What is the problem?"
PlanningS.M.A.R.T. Prioritize, formulate, select intervention. "What is the goal to resolve the problem?"
ImplementationReassess, determine. "What will be done to resolve the problem?"
EvaluationCollect, compare, relate, draw, continue to modify or terminate. "Was the goal met?"
S.M.A.R.TSpecific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time scaled
P.I.C.O.T.Population of a group, Issue of Interest or activity focus, Comparison of Group or Comparing Interventions, Outcomes or Desired Effects, Time Frame
L.E.A.R.N.Listen to client's perception of problem; Explain your perception of problem and the treatments ordered by physicians; Acknowledge and discuss the differences and similarities between these two perceptions; Review ordered treatments while remembering client's cultural parameters; and Negotiate agreement, that is, assist client in understanding medical treatments ordered by physician, and have client help to make decisions about those treatments as appropriate (i.e., cultural foods permitted on ordered diet)
A.D.P.I.E.Assessment/Analysis (what does the problem look like), Diagnosis (what is the problem? readiness), Plan (what is the goal to solve the problem), Intervention (what will be done to resolve the problem), and Evaluation (was the goal met?)
Competency 1Apply knowledge of social and cultural factors that affect nursing and healthcare
Competency 2Use relevant data sources and best evidence in providing culturally competent care
Competency 3Promote achievement of safe and quality outcomes of care for diverse populations
Competency 4Advocate for social justice, including commitment to health of vulnerable populations and elimination of health disparities
Competency 5Participate in continuous cultural competence development
Define CommitmentThe state or instance of being obligated or emotionally impelled
Define Organizational CommitmentThe relative strength of an individual's relationship to and sense of belonging to an organization
Define Affective CommitmentAn attachment to a profession and includes identification with and involvement in the profession
Define Normative CommitmentA feeling of obligation to continue a profession. For example, the nurse who enters the field or remains in it due to personal or family experiences with illness have created a desire to work in the field
Define Continuance CommitmentThe awareness of costs associated with leaving the profession, develops when negative consequences of leaving, such as loss of income, are seen as reasons to remain
5 Stages of Commitment1) Exploratory (explore positive aspects of profession); 2) Testing (discover negative elements of profession); 3) Passionate (synthesizes the positive and negative elements from explore and testing); 4) Quiet-and-Bored (settle into humdrum routines of nursing program); and 5) Integrated (integrate both positive and negative elements of profession into more flexible, complex, and enduring form of commitment
Critical Thinking in NursingAll or part of the process of questioning, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, inference, inductive and deductive reasoning

Section 4

Question Answer
Motivational InterviewingClinical communication skill to elicit patient's personal motivations for changing behavior to promote health; May include behavior associated with medication adherence, dietary changes, smoking cessation, and physical activity
Purpose of Motivational InterviewingTeach how to modify behavior; Focuses on promoting healthy choices
4 Aspects of Motivational Interviewing1) Roll with resistance; 2) Express empathy; 3) Resist the righting reflex; and 4) Empower them
Health Promotion MethodsExercise regularly; Put it perspective; Get in touch with self; Relaxation; Time management; Communication; Prayer and/or meditation
Roles of Nurse, or Nursing ProcessTo Identify a client's health status and actual or potential healthcare problems or needs, to establish plans to meet the identified needs, to deliver specific nursing interventions to meet those needs, and to evaluate the success of those interventions; Dynamic rather than static plan
Nursing ResearchA systematic and strict scientific process that tests hypotheses about health-related conditions and the processes of nursing care
Nursing Clinical ResearchSeeks answers to questions that will ultimately improve client care; Examples: What are links between diet and development of diabetes; Is new drug or device more effective than one already on market; Are clients satisfied with their care during hospitalization
Patient-Centered CareNurses respect the client's autonomy regarding care decisions, assessing the client's experiences and preferences and enlisting the client's participation in care at every opportunity
Key Behaviors When Nurse Delegates1) Effective communication; 2) Motivation; and 3) Validation
5 Rights of Delegation Process1) Right task (task is one that can be delegated for specific client); 2) Right Circumstance (setting is appropriate and resources are available); 3) Right Person (Give the right task to the right delegate for the right client); 4) Right Direction (describe objectives, limits, and expectations); and 5) Right Supervision (monitor, evaluate, give feedback, and intervene if necessary)
5 Steps to Delegation Process1) Define task; 2) decide on delegate; 3) describe task; 4) reach agreement; and 5) monitor performance and provide feedback
Client AdvocacyOverall goal is to protect client's rights
4 Dimensions of Client Advocacy1) Being a client advocate; 2) Following through or following up; 3) Providing resources; and 4) Going above and beyond
AuthorityThe right to act or accomplish the task
AssignmentNo transfer of authority occurs; Instead assignments are bureaucratic functions that reflect job description and client or organizational needs
Teamwork and CollaborationCollaborative care is client-centered, promotes communication among care providers, and optimizes resources to ensure safe, effective, efficient client care
Evidence-Based ResearchEnsures the nurse maintains a practice rooted in current up-to-date research and incorporates client values and practices while ensuring client autonomy regarding health care decisions
Evidence-Based Research is Based UponClinical expertise; Current strong evidence; and Client perspectives
Large Randomized Control StudiesHighest, strongest, and most reliable form of research
Information TechnologyCollect, record, and manage client health information; Guard against errors; Plan and modify client care as appropriate; and Used to maintain current, evidence-based practice;
Quality ImprovementRequires nurses to analyze trends and processes that impact safe, effective client care, participating in improvement effects
Evidence-Based Practice1) Develop clinical question; 2) Retrieve evidence; 3) Evaluate evidence; and 4) Apply evidence
Affordable Health Care Act: NationalKey provisions are intended to extend coverage to millions of uninsured Americans, to implement measures that will lower health care costs and improve system efficiency, and to eliminate industry practices that include denial of coverage due to pre-existing conditions
SafetyNurses act to reduce risk and improve client outcomes; Nurses are accountable for ensuring this at all times and in all settings
Professional BehaviorsEffective nursing actions that form helping relationships based on technical knowledge and expertise; These actions are also based on ethical principles and clinical reasoning; ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses
2 Qualities Impacting Client Perceptions of Nursing Care1) Effectiveness (doing the right things); and 2) Efficiency (doing things right)
Effectiveness and Efficiency CombinedHigh Productivity

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