NURS 111 (Notes on Exam 2)

jasmine's version from 2015-12-01 00:28

Section 1

Question Answer
Significant Characteristics for Neonatal (birth to 28 days) behavior is largely reflexive and develops to more purposeful behavior
Nursing Implications for Neonatal (birth to 28 days) Assist parents to identify and meet unmet needs
Significant Characteristics for Infancy (1 month to 1 year) Physical growth is rapid
Nursing Implications for Infancy (1 month to 1 year) Control the infant's environment so that physical and psychological needs are met
Significant Characteristics for Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years old) Motor development permits increased physical autonomy; Psychosocial skills increase
Nursing Implications for Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years old)Safety and risk-taking strategies must be balanced to permit growth
Significant Characteristics for Pre-school (3 to 6 years old) The preschooler's world is expanding; New experiences and the preschooler's social role are tried during play; Physical growth is slower
Nursing Implications for Pre-school (3 to 6 years old) Provide opportunities for play and social activity
Significant Characteristics for School Age (6 to 12 years old) This stage includes the pre-adolescent period (10-12 years old); Peer group increasingly influences behavior; Physical growth is slower
Nursing Implications for School Age (6 to 12 years old) Allow time and energy for the school-age child to pursue hobbies and school activities; Recognize and support child's achievement
Significant Characteristics for Adolescent (12 to 18 years old) Self-concept changes with biological development; Values are tested; Physical growth accelerates; Stress increases
Nursing Implications for Adolescent (12 to 18 years old) Assist adolescents to development coping behaviors; Help adolescents develop strategies for resolving conflicts
Significant Characteristics for Young Adulthood (18 to 40 years old) A personal lifestyle develops; Individual establishes a relationship with a significant other and a commitment to something
Nursing Implications for Young Adulthood (18 to 40 years old) Accept adult's chosen lifestyle and assist with necessary adjustments relating to health; Recognize the individual's commitments; Support change as necessary for health
Significant Characteristics for Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years old) Lifestyle changes due to other changes; For example, children leave home, occupational goals change
Nursing Implications for Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years old) Assist clients to plan for anticipated changes in life, to recognize the risk factors related to health, and to focus on strengths rather than weaknesses
Significant Characteristics for Older Adulthood, known as Young-old (65 to 74 years old) Adaptation to retirement and changing physical abilities is often necessary; Chronic illness may develop
Nursing Implications for Older Adulthood, known as Young-old (65 to 74 years old) Assist clients to keep mentally, physically, and socially active and to maintain peer group interactions
Significant Characteristics for Middle-old (75 to 84 years old) Adaptation to decline in speed of movement, reaction time, and increasing dependence on others may be necessary
Nursing Implications for Middle-old (75 to 84 years old) Assist clients to cope with loss (i.e., hearing, sensory abilities, eyesight, death of loved one); Provide necessary safety measures
Significant Characteristics for Old-old (85 years and older) Increasing physical problems may develop
Nursing Implications for Old-old (85 years and older) Assist clients with self-care as required, and with maintaining as much independence as possible

Section 2

Question Answer
Growth and Development from birth to 1 year old (Infants) Erikson: Infancy-Trust versus Mistrust; Piaget: Sensorimotor phase; Freud: Oral stage
Growth and Development from 1 to 3 years old (Toddlers) Erikson: Early childhood-Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt; Piaget: Sensorimotor phase to Pre-operational phase; Freud: Anal-anus and bladder are sources of pleasure (toilet training)
Growth and Development from 3 to 6 years old (preschool) Erikson: Late childhood-Initiative versus Guilt; Piaget: Pre-operational phase; Freud: Phallic (oedipal (boys desire for mother) and electra (girls desire for father) complexes
Growth and Development from 6 to 12 years old (school age) Erikson: Industry versus Inferiority; Piaget: Concrete Operational phase; Freud: Latency
Growth and Development from 12 to 18 years old (Adolescents) Erikson: Identity versus Role Confusion; Piaget: Formal Operational phase 11-15 YEARS; Freud: Genital (Energy directed toward full sexual maturity and function and development of skills needed to cope with the environment
Physical Status and Changes in Young Adults from 18 to 25 years old Erikson: Intimacy versus Isolation; At peak of physical development; choices must be be made about education, occupation, relationships, independence, and lifestyle
Physical assessment of young adult includes height, weight, blood pressure, and vision.
Specific questions nurses may ask young adults (18 to 25 years old) about Substance abuse, sexual activity and concerns, exercise, eating habits, menstrual history, and patterns, coping mechanisms, any familiar chronic illnesses, and family changes
Physical Status and Changes in Middle Adults from age 40 to 65 years old Erikson: Generativity versus Stagnation; Similar to younger adults (18 to 25 years old), however many changes take place between 40 and 65 years old such as decrease turgor, loss of melanin, decrease of muscle mass and elasticity
Physical assessment of middle adult includes All body systems, including blood pressure, vision, and hearing; Monitor for risks and onset of cancer symptoms is essential
Specific questions nurses may ask middle adults (40 to 65 years old) Food intake and exercise habits, substance use, sexual concerns, changes in the reproductive system, coping mechanism, and family history of chronic illnesses
Physical Status and Changes in Older Adults (65 to 74 years old) Erikson: Integrity versus Despair
Young old 65-74 years old
Middle old 75-84 years old
Old old 85 and older
Average age expectancy in the U.S. 76 years for men and 81 years for women
Promotion and Safety Essential for nurse and caregivers to verify identity by comparing numbers and names in the Identification bracelets of the mom and newborn before giving baby to parent
Nurse should teach parents the following measures to prevent abduction1) Parents should check that identification bands are in place as they care for their infant; if the bands are missing, parents should ask that they be replaced immediately.
2) Parents should allow only individuals with proper birthing from the room. If parents do not know the staff person, they should call the nurse for assistance.
3)Parents should report the presence of any suspicious individuals on the birthing unit.
4) Parents should never leave their baby alone in their room. If they walk in the halls or take a shower, parents should have a family member watch the baby or should return the baby to the nursery.
5) A parent who is feeling weak, faint, or unsteady should not lift the baby. Instead, the parent should call for assistance.
6) Parents should always keep an eye and a hand on the baby when the infant is out of the crib.
7) Parents should ask visitors to leave if they have a cold, diarrhea. Discharge for sores, or a contagious disease. Newborns need protection from infection even though they do possess some immunity.

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