NURS 111 (Exam notes)

jasmine's version from 2015-12-01 00:09

Section 1

Question Answer
Leading Causes of Death in Children Unintentional injuries
Toddlers and Unintentional injuries1) Drowning is a concern, especially around swimming pools
2) Vulnerable during motor vehicle crashes or when hit, pushed, or shaken, due to their small size and developing bones
3) Also are at risk for injury, or death due to fires or burns and suffocation
Preschoolers and Unintentional injuries1) Although the number of injuries and fatalities are reduced compared to toddlers, common causes of injury in preschoolers are generally the same
2) In 2010 1,500 deaths were unintentional, most by motor vehicle crash or drowning
3) Appropriate booster seat usage and belt positioning can reduce number of injuries and deaths
4) Foreign body problem- relates to tendency for children to place objects in their mouths, by doing this raises risks for them to aspirate (choke) symptoms are wheezing, coughing, dyspnea, cyanosis when at rest
School Age Children and Unintentional injuries1) Children 5-10 are more active and tend to play further from home with less supervision
2) Less dependent on parents and faster on foot and bicycles, leading to more falls, accidents, and playground injuries
3) Most common nonfatal cause is unintentional fall for school age children (for injuries)
Adolescents and Unintentional injuries1) 11-18 years, and most likely to experiment with drugs and alcohol
2) They are experiencing emotional turmoil, leading to outward aggression and fighting, or internalizing suicide
3) Ages 10-14 have the highest rate of injury during sports
Young Adults and Unintentional injuries1) 19-45 years old, are getting jobs, being educated, getting married, and having kids
2) Almost 150,000 young adults died in 2010. 28% resulted in unintentional injuries, 45% due to poisoning by drugs, narcotics, medicines, or biological agents
3) 39% are from motor vehicle accidents, malignant cancers 13%, 11.5% died from heart disease, likely due to an aging, overweight population. 11% died from suicide, and homicide accounted for another
4) Overexertion can be a particular concern among recreational athletes, who may be a greater risk for dehydration, exposure related illness, or sports related injury
Middle Adults and Unintentional injuries1) Middle adults are slowing down and becoming less active and developing some chronic health problems as the healing process slows down
2) For the first time unintentional injuries are not the leading cause in death
3) Instead cancers are accounting for one third of deaths
4) Heart disease is second leading cause of death rising over 21% of deaths due to age and obesity

Section 2

Question Answer
Five important themes when talking to potential victims (For nurses to conduct)1) Child friendly environment (nice room with calming and even fun pictures)

2) Building rapport and trust (Should never lie or make false promises to the children” impossible to promise that the child’s parents won’t get in trouble”) – nurses are also “MANDATORY REPORTERS”, meaning if child discloses info about abuse, nurse must report

3) Active listening (nurses need to begin in discussion about safe topics such as school, friends, favorite colors, books, or television shows.) From there nurse can say “how did you hurt your arm?” vs “Did your mother break your arm?”

4) Believing the child (if nurse conveys disbelief, child may shut down and refuse to talk about it)

5) Potential for false reports (they do occur and nurses should be mindful of this; but by using open ended questions nurses cut down on the possibility of creating false memory in the child’s mind.)

Section 3

Question Answer
Immunization Introduces an antigen into the body and thus allows immunity against disease to develop naturally; Then the individual produces antibodies in response to the antigens
Active ImmunityAn antigen is given in the form of a vaccine (which stimulates antibody production without causing clinical disease)
Passive Immunity Antibodies are produced in another human or animal host and given to the child; Used when an individual needs antibodies faster than the body can develop them
Transplacental immunity Passive immunity transferred from mother to infant
Average infant born receives immunizations for approximately how many diseases during childhood 16 diseases
Vaccines recommended are as follows Measles, mumps, rubella, polio, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenza type b, hepatitis A and B, pneumococcus, varicella (chickenpox), and influenza
Most vaccines for infants and children are started between the ages of... 2-18 months, depending on vaccine
If vaccines are not given “Catch up” immunizations can be given throughout childhood and into adolescence as needed
Current vaccines recommended to be given in adolescence include Papillomavirus vaccine and meningococcal vaccine.
Some vaccines do not confer lifelong immunity such as Varicella, a second dose of varicella is needed for immunity.
Other vaccines that require multiple doses are as followsDTap (depthieria, tetanus, and pertussis), pneumococcal vaccine, MMR( measles, rubella, mumps) and hepatitis A and B
Hepatitis B #1 series at birth, #2 series at 1 month to 4 months, #3 series at 6 months to 18 months with catch up series for pre-adolescent 24 months to 18 years
DTap2, 4, and 6 months. 15-18 months. 4-6 years and Tdap 11-13 years
Hib 2, 4, and 6 months. 12-15 months
IPV (Inactivated Polio) 2 and 4 months. 6-18 months. 4-6 years
MMR #1 12-15 months. #2 4-6 years. Catch up #2 vaccine at 11-18 years
Varicella 12-18 months; Catch up vaccine at 24 months to 18 years
Pneumococcal (PCV) 2, 4, and 6 month. 12-15 months. Catch up vaccine at 24 months to 6 years. 24 months to 18 years
Vaccines for Selected Populations Hepatitis A between 24 months and 18 years recommended and Influenza 6 months to 18 years
Activity exercise pattern Refers to an individual’s routine of exercise, activity, leisure, and recreation. Includes (A) ADLs (activity of daily living) that require energy expenditure such as hygiene, dressing, cooking, shopping, eating, working, and home maintenance, and (B) the type, quality, and quantity of exercise, including sports.
Physical activity Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle contraction that increase energy expenditure.
Exercise Type of physical activity defined as a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement performed to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.
Activity tolerance Type and amount of exercise or daily living activities that an individual is able to perform without experiencing adverse effects.
Functional strength Another goal of exercise, and it is defined as the body’s ability to perform work.
Isotonic exercise Dynamic exercises, the muscle shortens to produce muscle contraction and active movement. Most physical conditioning exercises such as running, walking, swimming, cycling, as are ADLS (activities of daily living) and ROM (range of motion)
Isometric exercise Static or setting exercises, muscles contract without moving the joint (muscle length does not change). These exercises involve exerting pressure against a solid object and are useful for strengthening abdominal, gluteal, and quadriceps muscles used in ambulation; for maintaining strength in immobilized muscles in casts or traction, and for endurance training. Often called “quad sets” produce a mild increase in heart rate and cardiac output, but not so much in increase in blood flow to other parts of the body.
Isokinetic exercise Resistive exercises, involve muscle contraction or tension against resistance; they can be either isotonic or isometric. Individual moves (isotonic) or tenses (isometric) against resistance. Used in physical conditioning, used to build up certain muscle groups.
Aerobic exercise Use large muscle groups that move repetitively. Improve cardiovascular conditioning and physical fitness and bring more oxygen into the body then is used to perform the activity.
Target heart rate Goal is to work up to and sustain a target heart rate during exercise; target hear rate based on individual’s age. To calculate maximum heart rate you subtract current age from 220.Then obtain target heart rate by taking 60%-85% of the maximum.
Talk test When exercising, an individual should experience labored breathing, yet still be able to carry on a conversation.
Anaerobic exerciseMuscles cannot draw in oxygen from the bloodstream, and anaerobic pathways are used to provide additional energy for short time. This type of exercise, such as weight lifting and sprinting is used in endurance training for athletes.

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