NURS 111 (Exam II Notes

jasmine's version from 2015-12-06 08:19

Section 1

Question Answer
Children 1 to 3 years old milestones according to 3 theorists Erikson: Early Childhood (18 months to 3 years old): Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt; Piaget: Sensorimotor phase (Stage 6: mental combinations, 18 months to 24 months) to Pre-operational phase (2 to 7 years); Freud: Anal (1 1/2 to 3 years old)-Anus and bladder are sources of pleasure (toilet training)
Children 1 to 3 years old sometimes experience what is known as ____ during their first 3 years First adolescent years
Children 1 to 3 years old show... Independence and negativism. Pride in newfound accomplishments emerges during this time
Early use of language awakens in the 1 year old the ability to... Think about objects or people when they are absent.
At 2 years old Increase in use of words as symbols enables toddler to use preoperational thought.
At 2 and 3 years old Rudimentary problem solving, creative thought, and an understanding of cause and effect relationships are now possible
Children 1 to 3 years old are comfortable... Asserting autonomy and separating from primary care providers

Section 2

Question Answer
Fine Motor Ability (1 to 2 years old) By end of second year, builds a tower of four blocks; Scribbles on paper; Can undress self; and throws a ball
Gross Motor Ability (1 to 2 years old) Runs; Walks up and down stairs; and Likes push-and-pull toys
Sensory Ability (1 to 2 years old) Visual acuity 20/50
Fine Motor Ability (2 to 3 years old) Draws a circle and other rudimentary forms; Learns to pour; Is learning to dress self
Gross Motor Ability (2 to 3 years old) Jumps; Kicks ball; and Throws ball overhead
Play and Toys (1 to 3 years old)Refines fine motor skills by use of cloth books, large pencil and paper, wooden puzzle; Facilitates imitative behavior by playing kitchen, grocery shopping, toy telephone
Learns gross motor skills activities by riding Big Wheel tricycle, playing with a soft ball and bat, molding water and sand, tossing ball or bean bag
Cognitive skills develop through exposure to educational television shows, music, stories, and books
Communication (1 to 3 years old) Increasingly enjoys talking; Vocabulary grows exponentially, especially when spoken and read to; Needs to release stress by pounding board, frequent gross motor activities, and occasional temper tantrums; Likes contact with other children and learns interpersonal skills
Toddler Play (1 to 3 years old) Parallel play
Parallel Play When toddlers play with similar objects side by side, occasionally trading toys and words

Section 3

Question Answer
Fine Motor Ability (3 to 6 years old) Uses scissors; Draws circle, square, cross; Draws at least a six-part person; Enjoys are projects such as pasting, stringing beads, using clay; Learns to tie shoes at end of preschool years; Buttons clothes; Brushes teeth; Eats three meals, with snacks; Uses spoon, fork, and knife
Gross Motor Ability (3 to 6 years old)Throws a ball overhand; Climbs well; and Rides tricycle
Sensory Ability (3 to 6 years old) Visual acuity continues to improve; Can focus on and learn letters and numbers
Play for 3 to 6 year olds (Preschool children) Associative and Dramatic play
Associative Play Example: One child cuts out colored paper while his friend glues it on paper in a design
Dramatic Play Using props to live out of the drama of human life; Ex., Furniture and clothing can be manipulated to represent people; Fantasy life
Play and Toys (3 to 6 years old, preschool children)Associative play is facilitated by simple games, puzzles, nursery rhymes, songs; Dramatic play is fostered by dolls and doll clothes, play houses and hospitals, dress-up clothes, puppets
Stress for 3 to 6 year olds is relieved by... Pens, paper, glue, scissors
Cognitive growth for 3 to 6 year olds is fostered by... Educational television shows, music, stories and books
Communication (3 to 6 years old) Develops and uses all parts of speech, occasionally incorrectly; Communicates with a widening array of people; Play with other children is a favorite activity
What Health Professionals can communicate to 3 to 6 year olds Verbalize and explain procedures to children; Use drawings and stories to explain care; Use accurate names for bodily functions; Allow the child to talk, ask questions, and make choices
Object Permanence Sensorimotor period, especially in coordination of secondary schemes sub-stage from 8-12 months; Ability to understand that when something is out of sight, it still exists
Nursing Implications with Object Permanence Before development of object permanence, babies will not look for toys or other objects out of sight; as the concept is developing they are concerned when a parent leaves, since they are not certain the parent will return
Egocentrism Pre-operational thought stage; Ability to see things only from one's own point of view
Nursing Implications with Egocentrism Peers or others who have gone through an experience will not impress the preschooler; teaching should focus on what an experience will be like for the child himself
Transductive Reasoning Pre-operational thought stage; Connecting two events in a cause-and-effect relationship simply due to occurring together in time
Nursing Implications with Transductive ReasoningAsk the child what he or she thinks caused an occurrence; Ask how the two events are connected; Correct misconceptions to lessen child's guilt
CentrationPre-operational thought stage; Focusing only on one particular aspect of a situation
Nursing Implications with Centration Listen to the child's comments and deal with concerns in order to be able to present new concepts to the child
Animism Pre-operational thought stage; Giving lifelike qualities to non-living things
Nursing Implications with Animism Ask preschool children to describe how a machine works, or how the trees move; Provide opportunities to learn about machines that may move and make noises (intravenous pumps, magnetic resonance imaging) to decrease fears
Magical ThinkingPre-operational thought stage; Believing that events occur due to one's thoughts or actions
Nursing Implications with Magical Thinking Ask young children how they became ill, or what caused a parent's or sibling's illness; correct misconceptions when the child blames self for causing problems by wishing someone ill or having bad behavior
Conservation Concrete operational thought stage; Knowing that matter is not changed when its form is altered
Nursing Implications with ConservationBefore conservation of thought is reached, the child may think that gender can be changed when hair is cut, the leg under a cast is broken in separate pieces; Ask perceptions and clarify misconceptions

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