NURS 111 (Exam 2)

jasmine's version from 2015-11-03 20:35

Section 1

Question Answer
Birth to 1 year old in 3 theorist's perspective Erikson’s: Trust versus Mistrust (birth to 18 months); Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Stage 1 through state 5 [stage 6 not included]: Use of reflexes, primary circular reaction, secondary circular reaction, coordination of secondary schemata, and tertiary circular reaction); Freud: Oral Stage (birth to 1 1/2 years-Mouth is center of pleasure; security is primary need; major conflict: weaning)
Fastest development through life is what age period in life Birth-1 year
Fine Motor Ability (Birth to 1 month)Holds hand in fist; Draws arms and legs to body when crying
Gross Motor Ability (Birth to 1 month)Inborn reflexes such as startle and rotting are predominant activity; May lift head briefly if prone; Alerts to high-pitched voices; Comforts with touch
Sensory Ability (Birth to 1 month)Prefers to look at faces and black and white geometric designs; Follows objects in line of vision
Fine Motor Ability (2 to 4 months)Holds rattle when placed in hand; Looks at and plays with own fingers; Brings hands to midline
Gross Motor Ability (2 to 4 months)Moro reflex fading in strength; Can turn from side to back and then return; Head lag when pulled to sitting position decreases; Sits with head held in mid-line with some bobbing; When prone, holds head and supports weight on forearms
Sensory Ability (2 to 4 months)Follows objects 180 degrees; Turns head to look for voices and sounds
Fine Motor Ability (4 to 6 months)Grasps rattle and other objects at will; Drops them to pick up another offered object; Holds feet and pulls to mouth; Holds bottle; Grasps with whole hand (palmar grasp); Manipulates objects
Gross Motor Ability (4 to 6 months)Holds head steady when sitting; Has no head lag when pulled to sitting; Turns from abdomen to back by 4 months and then back to abdomen by 6 months; When held standing supports much of own weight
Sensory Ability (4 to 6 months)Examines complex visual images; Watches the course of a falling object; Responds readily to sounds
Fine Motor Ability (6 to 8 months)bangs objects held in hands; Transfers objects from one hand to the other; Pincer grasp begins at times
Gross Motor Ability (6 to 8 months)Most inborn reflexes extinguished; Sits alone steadily without support by 8 months; Likes to bounce on legs when held in standing position
Sensory Ability (6 to 8 months)Recognizes own name and responds by looking and smiling; Enjoys small and complex objects at play
Fine Motor Ability (8 to 10 months)Picks up small objects; Uses pincer grasp well
Gross Motor Ability (8 to 10 months)Crawls or pulls whole body along floor by arms; Creeps by using hands and knees to keep trunk off floor; Pulls self to standing and sitting by 10 months; Recovers balance when sitting
Sensory Ability (8 to 10 months)Understands words such as "no" and "cracker;" May say one word in addition to "mama" and "dada." recognizes sound without difficulty
Fine Motor Ability (10 to 12 months)May hold crayon or pencil and make mark on paper; Places objects into containers through holes
Gross Motor Ability (10 to 12 months)Stands alone; Walks holding onto furniture; Sits down from standing
Sensory Ability (10 to 12 months)Plays peek-a-boo and patty cake
Autosomal Chromosomes46 minus 2 chromosomes that govern all remaining characteristics
Sex Chromosomes2 of 46 chromosomes determining child's gender
The infant's birth weight doubles at what age?5 months
Teeth begin to erupt at what age?6 months
By end of first year, Child has approximately how many teeth?6 to 8 deciduous
Height increase by approximately what by the end of the first year?1 foot
The infant's birth weight triples at what age? 1 year
The infant's birth weight quadruples and is one half of adult height at what age? 2 years
Rate of Growth Slows during what age? During the age of 2
Children take a limited amount of what during their 2nd year of life? Limited food intake
Play for a 8 month old is primarily what type of play? Solitary play
ImportantWhen infants move extremities or grasp objects, they experience the foundations of play
8 month old play may include...Grasping and banging blocks on floor; When parent walks by, may laugh and wave feet wildly; Enjoys presence of adults or other children; Moves forward and reaches for objects
8 month old play may focus on...Manipulative play; May place toys in mouth-texture, quality of object, and aspects of surroundings
Play is a reflection of...Every aspect of development, as well as a method for enhancing learning and maturation

Section 2

Question Answer
Play and Toys (Birth to 3 months)Prefers visual stimuli of mobiles, black and white patterns, mirrors; Responds to auditory stimuli such as music boxes, tape players, soft voices; Responds to rocking and cuddling; Moves legs and arms while adult sings and talks; Likes varying stimuli-different rooms, sounds, visual images
Communication (Birth to 3 months)Coos, Babbles, Cries
Play and Toys (3 to 6 months)Prefers noise-making objects that are easily grasped like rattles; Enjoys stuffed animals and soft toys with contrasting colors
Communication (3 to 6 months)Vocalizes during play and with familiar people; Laughs; Cries less; Squeals and makes pleasure sounds; Babbles multi-syllabically (mamama)
Play and Toys (6 to 9 months)Likes teething toys; Increasingly desires social interaction with adults and other children; Favors soft toys that can be manipulated and mouthed
Communication (6 to 9 months)Increases vowel and consonant sounds; Links syllables together; Uses speech-like rhythm when vocalizing with others
Play and Toys (9 to 12 months)Enjoys large blocks, toys that pop apart and go back together, nesting cups and other objects; Laughs at surprise toys like a jack-in-the-box; Plays interactive games like peek-a-boo; Uses push-and-pull toys
Communication (9 to 12 months)Understands "no" and other simple commands; Says "dada" and "mama" to identify parents; Learns one or two other words; Receptive speech surpasses expressive speech, understanding more words than can speak
Personality and Temperament...Vary widely among infants; Differences in responses to the environment may be inborn characteristics of temperament
The nursing assessment identifies...Personality characteristics of the infant that the nurse can share with the parents; Parents may be advised to use one or two babysitters rather than engaging new sitters frequently.
ImportantAlthough infant's temperament is unchanged, the ability to fit with the environment is enhanced
Communication skills are evident even at what age?A few weeks of age
Nurses assess communication to identify...Possible abnormalities or developmental delays;
Language may be assessed by what test?The Denver II developmental test or other specialized language screening tools
Communication Abnormalities may be caused by what? Hearing deficit; Developmental delay; or Lack of verbal stimulation from caretakers
Nursing Interventions focus on providing what? A stimulating and comforting environment
Nursing Planning Interventions should consider what? The family's cultural patterns for communications and development; Encouraging parents to speak to infants and teach words
Hospital Nurses should include what when providing care?The infant's known words, and non-verbal support by hugging and holding
Define TemperamentAspects of a person's personality, such as introversion or extroversion, that are often regarded as innate rather than learned