Growth and development that occurs starting from head moving towards, trunk, legs, and feet.
Growth and development that occurs from center of the body out
Asserts that individual must meet needs of each of his developmental stages to move to the next successfully. ORAL (birth-1 ½ yr), ANAL (1 ½ -3 yrs.), AND PHALLIC (4-6 yrs) and CULMINATING stage is Genital Stage
Part of a person’s mental life that they are unaware of.
Resides in the unconscious, and operating on the pleasure principle, seeks immediate pleasure and gratification.
REALISTIC part of a person, balances the gratification demands of the ID with limitations of social and physical circumstances.
Defense mechanisms or adaptive mechanisms
The result of conflicts between the ID’s impulses and the anxiety created by the conflicts due to social and environmental restrictions.
Contain conscience and the ego ideal, consists of society’s “DO NOT’S”, which result from parental and cultural expectations.
Underlying motivation to human development is a dynamic, psychic, energy.
Immobilization or inability of the personality to proceed to next stage because of anxiety.
Example of Freud's Theory
Oral stage: Nurse can assist in infant’s development by making feeding a pleasurable experience by providing comfort and security for the infant.
Believed that, although physical capabilities and functions decrease with old age, mental and social capacities increase in the latter part of life. He proposes 3 developmental tasks during old age, in contrast to Erikson’s (integrity vs despair)
Studied adult development. He believes transformation is a central them during adulthood. “Adults continue to change over the period of time considered to be adulthood and developmental phases may be found during the adult span of life”
Gould's Theory for people in their twenties
A person may likely assume new roles
Gould's Theory for people in their thirties
A person may experience role confusion
Gould's Theory for people in their forties
A person may become aware of time limitations in relation to accomplishing life’s goals
Gould's Theory for people in their fifties
A person may accept each stage as a natural progression of life marks path to adult maturity
Advances the idea that successful aging involves maintaining or continuing previous values, habits, preferences, family ties, and all other linkages that have formed the basic underlying structure of adult life.
Believes that children learn attitudes, beliefs, customs, and values through their social contacts with adults and other children; Children imitate (model) everything they see, and if behavior is positively reinforced, they tend to repeat it; Also believed however, people can consciously choose how to act, such as deciding to handle problems by talking rather than using violence; External environment (behaviors of others) and the child’s internal processes are both; key elements in the behaviors the child manifests
B. F. Skinner
Known for Operant Conditioning theory: Rewarded or reinforced behavior will be repeated; behavior that is punished will be suppressed (most of his work was with lab animals)
Chess and Thomas
Temperament Theory; 3 patterns of temperament (Easy child, Difficult child, and Slow to warm up child
Moderately active, shows regularity in patterns of eating, sleeping, and elimination, usually positive in mood when subjected to stimuli. Adapts to new situations and able to accept rules and work well with others. 40% of children in the New York longitudinal study displayed this type.
Displays irregular schedules for eating, sleeping, and elimination; adapts slowly to new situations and persons, displays negative mood. Intense reactions to the environment are common. Study found that 10% of children display this personality type.
Slow-to-warm up child
Reactions of mild intensity and is slow to adapt to new situations. Displays initial withdrawal followed by gradual, quiet, and slow interactions with the environment. About 15% of children displayed this personality type.
Chess and Thomas view a child....
as an individual who both influences and is influenced by the environment.
Chess and Thomas focus on wide spectrum of...
Behaviors possible in children and how they respond to daily events.
Ecological Theory of Development; Believes that each child brings a unique set of genes, and attributes such as age, gender, health, and other characteristics
Emphasizes the presence of mutual interactions between the child and various settings
5 Systems of Ecological Theory
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem
Daily, consistent, close relationship such as home, child care, school, friends, and neighbors,
relationships of microsystems with one another. FOR EXAMPLE
(Home and School)
Settings that influence child even though the child is not in close daily contact with the system
Beliefs, values, and behaviors expressed in the child’s environment
Final level that brings perspective of time to the previous settings
Refers to the genetic or hereditary capability of an individual
Refers to the effects of the environment on a person’s performance
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory specifically addresses what?
Moral development in children and adults
Lawrence Kohlberg was not concerned with what?
Morality of an individual’s decision, rather the reasons an individual makes a decision
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory Levels
Pre-moral, or Pre-conventional; Conventional; and Post-conventional, or autonomous or principled
First Pre-moral or Pre-conventional
Responsive to cultural rules and labels of good, bad, right, and wrong
Second Conventional level
individual is concerned about maintaining the expectations of the family, group, or nation and sees this as right
Third Post-conventional, autonomous, or principled level
people make an effort to define valid values and principles without regard to outside authority or to expectations to others
Carol Gilligan reported that...
Women often consider the dilemmas Kohlberg used in his research to be IRRELEVENT.
Carol Gilligan proposed that...
Moral development proceeds through 3 levels and 2 transitions, with each level representing a more complex understanding of the relationship of self and others and each transition resulting in a crucial reevaluation of the conflict between selfish and responsibility.
Refers to individual’s understanding of their relationship with the universe and their perceptions about the direction and meaning of life
James Fowler describes
The development of faith as a force that gives meaning to a person’s life.
Believes that the development of faith is an interactive process between the individual and his or her environment
Described faith as a way of being and behaving that evolves from an experienced faith , guided by parents and others during a person’s infancy and childhood, to an owned faith that is internalized in adulthood and serves as a directive for personal action
Temperament- Combination of biological and physical characteristics that is specific to each individual and influences personality and behavior