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NURS 111 (2)

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jasmine's version from 2015-12-04 15:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Eric EriksonBelieved that people continue to develop throughout life; Expanded Freud's theory of development by describing 8 stages of development
Infancy (birth to 18 months)Trust versus Mistrust
Trust and Mistrust Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentDevelopment of basic trust and sense of security
Trust and Mistrust Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentLack of trust, sense of fear
Early Childhood (18 months to 3 years)Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Autonomy, Shame and Doubt Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentBasic awareness of independence; sense of autonomy and self-control
Autonomy, Shame and Doubt Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentSelf-doubt, sense of helplessness, heightened dependence on caregivers
Late Childhood (3 to 5 years)Initiative versus Guilt
Initiative and Guilt Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentEmergence of basic sense of self-guidance and self-discipline
Initiative and Guilt Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentImpaired self-initiative, insecurity regarding leadership ability
School Age (6 to 12 years)Industry versus Inferiority
Industry and Role Confusion Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentConfidence in ability to attain goals, initial formation of identity apart from nuclear family, successful peer group integration
Industry and Role Confusion Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentSense of incompetence, low self-esteem, difficulty integrating into peer groups
Adolescent (12 to 20 years)Identity versus Role Confusion
Identity and Role Confusion Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentFormation of strong sense of identity as an individual and as a member of society, identification of personal and occupational goals
Identity and Role Confusion Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentRole confusion, social alienation, potential substance abuse, potential development of antisocial personality disorder
Young Adulthood (18 to 25 years)Intimacy versus Isolation
Intimacy and Isolation Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentDevelopment of healthy romantic relationships without compromising personal identity
Intimacy and Isolation Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentAvoidance of intimacy, fear of commitment, isolation
Adulthood (25 to 65 years)Generativity versus Stagnation
Generativity and Stagnation Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentProductivity and creativity, desire to care for and guide offspring (or if no children, to guide the next generation)
Generativity and Stagnation Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentSelf-preoccupation, primary attainment of pleasure through self-indulgence, stagnation
Maturity (65 years to death)Integrity versus Despair
Integrity and Despair Outcomes of Successful Task AccomplishmentSense of peace concerning life experiences, life choices framed within a meaning context, development of wisdom
Integrity and Despair Outcomes of Failed Task AccomplishmentLife experiences framed by bitterness and/or regret; may progress to hopelessness and depression
Examples of Applying Erikson's Stages to Nursing
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Section 2

Question Answer
Jean PiagetCognitive Theorist; Proposed cognitive development in 5 phases
Piaget's 5 Phases of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor, Preconceptual, Intuitive Thought, Concrete Operations, Formal Operations
Sensorimotor Phase (0 to 2 years)Contains 6 Stages; The infant explores the world through direct sensory and motor contact; Object permanence and separation anxiety develop during this phase;
Sensorimotor Stage 1 (birth to 1 month)Use of reflexes; Sucking, rooting, grasping
Sensorimotor Stage 2 (1 to 4 months)Primary circular reaction; Infant responds reflexively; Objects are extension of self
Sensorimotor Stage 3 (4 to 8 months)Secondary circular reaction; Awareness of environment grows; Changes in the environment are actively made as infant recognizes "cause and effect"
Sensorimotor Stage 4 (8 to 12 months)Coordination of secondary schemata; Intentional behavior occurs; Object permanence begins
Sensorimotor Stage 5 (12 to 18 months)Tertiary circular reaction; Toddlers discover new goals and ways to attain goals; Rituals are important
Sensorimotor Stage 6 (18 to 24 months)Mental combinations; Language gives toddlers a new tool to use
Preoperational Phase (2 to 7 years)Young children think by using words as symbols; Everything is significant and relates to "me." They explore the environment; Language development is rapid; Words are associated with objects
Concrete Operational Phase (7 to 11 years)Children solve concrete problems, begin to understand relationships such as size, understand right and left, and recognize various viewpoints
Formal Operation Phase (11 to 15 years)Children use rational thinking; Reasoning is deductive and futuristic
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Section 3

Question Answer
Evelyn Duvall Developmental TheoryDefines the family as a small, semi-closed system; this system interacts with a larger system, and includes 8 developmental tasks
Phase 1 Adult is newly married, with no children
Phase 2 First child is born
Phase 3 Oldest child is between 2 and 6
Phase 4 Oldest child is in school
Phase 5 Oldest child is an adolescent
Phase 6 Oldest child leaves the home
Phase 7 All children have left home
Phase 8 One or both parents are retired
Adult is newly married, with no children Spousal role is assumed stage work, and role terminates, and/or the person assumes the spousal role
First child is born Parenting role is assumed and/or role of parent is added
Oldest child is between 2 and 6 Parenting role changes
Oldest child is in school Parenting role changes again
Oldest child is an adolescent Parenting role changes again
Oldest child leaves the home Parenting role extends to assist or help the child in becoming an independent adult
All children have left home Post-parental phase or sometimes called post-parental stage
One or both parents are retired Worker role terminates, or ends
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