Nucleic acids

theoknopf's version from 2017-06-09 00:01

Section 1

Question Answer
DNAmolecules and nucleotides, double helix, ATGC
RNAribose, Uracil to adenine
Nucleotide building block of DNA
Replication In the S phase, occurs in nucleus,
Leading strand 3' to 5'
lagging strand in Okazaki fragments

Section 2

Question Answer
Helicase unzips DNA
Primase Polymerises nucleotide triphosphates, 5 to 3
DNA polymerase 3 synthesizes nucleotides
DNA polymerase 1puts nucleotides onto primers of the lagging strand
Ligase glues Okazaki fragments together
Telomerase catalyzes telomeres
Nucleasecuts out unwanted parts of the nucleotides
Topoisomere turns DNA into double helix

Section 3

Question Answer
mRNAmessenger, holds genetic info, carry codons
tRNAtransfer, Links mRNA with amino acids
Translation ribosomal subunits assemble, mRNA decoded
Transcription amino acids carried to ribosomes, 3' to 5'
codonthree nucleotides, in DNA
Anticodon three nucleotides, complementary to codon
RNA polymerase produces tRNA

Section 4

Question Answer
Triplet code three nucleotides codes for specific amino acid
chargaffs ruleboth members of the pairs are equal

Section 5

Question Answer
Griffith Discovered that bacteria is capable of transferring genetic material
Hershey and Chase bacteriophages inject DNA into host This means that DNA is what is given to offspring
Franklin and Wilkins Used optical spectroscopy to see that DNA is shaped like a double helix
Watson and Crick Took Franklin’s photo and built a model of DNA

Section 6

Question Answer
mIssense substitute amino acid
nonsense shorten protein chain
insertion adds a peice of DNA
deletion removing pieces of DNA
Duplication piece of DNA copied to many times
frameshift When addition or loss of DNA base changes a gene reading frame
silent when no notable change occurs in phenotype
mutagenic agents Bromine X rays Gamma rays Sunlight

Section 7

Question Answer
recombinant DNA technology Joins together DNA molecules from two different species
exonsPart of DNA or RNA that has coding
intronsa segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes
promoterinitiates transcription
splicesomesremoves introns fro mRNA
stop codon alerts cell when to stop transcription
methionine essential amino acid, Angiogenesis
Angiogenesismaking new blood vessels from pre existing ones