Nuclear medicine and pharmacology

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-29 02:23

Section 1

Question Answer
nuclear medicineradioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes
radiopharmaceuticalsthe substances used for nuclear medicine
nuclear imagingdiagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals to document the structure and function of the organ or organs being examined; radiopharmaceuticals emit gamma rays that are detected by a gamma-ray camera attached to a comcpute
nuclear scana diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear medicine technology to gather information about the structure and function of organs or other body systems that cannot be seen on conventional x-ray
bone scana nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown; done to evaluate damage to the bones, detect cancer that has metastasized to the bones, and monitor conditions that can affect the bones
thyroid scana radiopharmaceutical containing a radioactive iodine is administered; the scan provides information about the size, shape, location and relative activity of different parts of the thyroid gland
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)a type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing perfusion through tissues and organs;used primarily to view the flow of blood through veins and arteries in the brain
perfusionthe flow of blood through an organ
positron emission tomography (PET)combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas
PET scans of the whole bodyoften used to detect cancer and to examine the effects of cancer therapy
PET scans of the heartused to determine blood flow the the heart muscle
PET scans of the brainused to evaluate patients who have memory disorders of an undetermined cause, suspected or proven brain tumors or seizure disorders that are not responsive to medical therapy

Section 2

Question Answer
pharmacologythe study of the nature, uses, and effects of drugs for medical purposes
pharmacista licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications
prescription druga medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional
over-the-counter druga medication that be purchased without a prescription
generic drugusually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark
brand-name drugsold under the name given the drug by the manufacturer
addictioncompulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a drug, alcohol or other substance; habit or practice that cannot be stopped without causing severe emotional, mental or physiologic reactions
drug tolerancethe body has become accustomed to a medication after being on it for a length of time, and higher doses are required to achieve the desired effect
adverse drug reactionan undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken
compliancethe patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional
regimendirections or rules
contraindicationa factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised
drug interactionthe result of drugs interacting with each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful
idiosyncratic reactionunexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
palliativea substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it
palliative caretreatment that focuses on alleviating pain and relieving symptoms rather that curing the disease
paradoxical reactionthe result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results
paradoxicalnot being normal or the usual kind
placeboan inactive substance that is administered only for its suggestive effects
antipyreticmedication administered to prevent or reduce fever
anti-inflammamtoryrelieves inflammation and pain without affecting consciousness

Section 3

Question Answer
analgesicthe class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness
non-narcotic analgesicssold over the counter for mild to moderate pain;prescription pain relievers are used for more moderate to severe pain
narcotic analgesicsavailable only by prescription and only for more severe pain; can also have a sedative effect and can cause physical dependence or addiction
acetaminophenreduces pain and fever but does not relieve inflammation
nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)non-narcotic analgesics administered to control pain by reducing inflammation and swelling; can cause side effects; attacking the stomach lining and thinning the blood
ibuprofennon-steriodal anti-inflammatory medicine that acts as an analgesic and an antipyretic
anticonvulsants/ antidepressantscan be effective as part of some chronic pain management programs
pain-relieving creamsapplied topically; primary active ingredient is capsaicin
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation; TENSdelivers small electrical impulses to the nerve endings through the skin;cause changes in muscles which produce temporary pain relief
transcutaneousperformed through the unbroken skin

Section 4

Question Answer
inhalation administrationdescribes vapors and gases taken in through the nose or mouth and absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs
oral administrationmedications taken by mouth to be absorbed through the walls of the stomach or small intestine
enteric coatingcoating on medicines to be absorbed in the small intestine; prevents them from being absorbed in the stomach
rectal administrationthe insertion of medication in the rectum either in the form of a suppository or a liquid
sublingual administrationthe placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly
topical applicationa liquid or ointment is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated
transdermalmedication is administered from a patch applied to unbroken skin; the medication is continuously released by the patch and absorbed through the skin and transmitted to the bloodstream
parenteral administrationtaken in to the body in a manner other than through the digestive tract
subcutaneous injectionmade into the fatty layer just below the skin
intradermal injectionmade into the middle layers of the skin
intramuscular injectionmade directly into muscle tissue
intravenous injectionmade directly into a vein
PICC lineperipherally inserted central catheter; frequently used for a patient who will need IV therapy for more than 7 days
bolusa single, concentrated dose of drug usually injected into a blood vessel over a short period of time