Notes on Bones

thetkaeo's version from 2015-12-14 10:55

Skeletal Cartilage

Question Answer
Skeletal Cartilage contains no...blood vessels or nerves
Skeletal Cartilage is surrounded by the...perichondrium
Three types of Skeletal Cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

Hyaline Cartilage

Question Answer
Hyaline Cartilage, flexibility, and resilience
Hyaline Cartilage is the most abundantskeletal cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage is present in what cartilages?Articular, Costal, Respiratory, Nasal
Covers the ends of long bones (Joints)Articular
connects the ribs to the sternumCostal
makes up the larynx and reinforces air passagesRespiratory
supports the noseNasal

Elastic Cartilage

Question Answer
Similar to hyaline cartilage, but containselastic fibers
Found in theexternal ear and the epiglottis
Highly compressed with greattensile strength
Containscollagen fibers
Found in the menisci of theknee and intervertebral disks

Growth of Cartilage

Question Answer
Cells in the perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilageAppositional
Lacunae-bound chondrocytes inside the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from withinInterstitial
Calcification of cartilage occursDuring normal bone growth and old age.

Classification of Bones

Question Answer
Bones of the skull, veterbral column, ribcageAxial skeleton
Bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hipAppendicular skeleton

Classification of Bones by Shape

Question Answer
Longer than they are wide (e.g. humerous)Long Bones
Bones that form within tendonsShort Bones
Short bones are cube-shaped bones of thewrist and ankle
Sesamoid Bones that form withintendons
thin, flattened, and a bit curvedFlat bones
bones with complicated shapesIrregular bones

Function of Bones

Question Answer
Form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organsSupport
Provides a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organsProtection
Provide levers for musclesMovement
Reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorusMineral Storage
hematopoiesis (creating new blood cells) occurs within the marrow cavities of bones (red bone marrow)Blood Cell Formation

Bone Markings

Question Answer
Bulges, depressions, and holes serve assites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons; joint surfaces; and Conduits for blood vessels and nerves

Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachement

Question Answer
Rounded projectionTuberosity
Narrow, prominent ridge of boneCrest
Large, blunt, irregular surfaceTrochanter
Narrow ridge of boneLine
Small rounded projectionTubercle
Raised area above a condyleEpicondyle
Sharp, slender projectionSpine
Any bony prominenceProcess

Process That Help to Form Joints

Question Answer
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neckHead
Smooth, nearly flat articular surfaceFacet
Rounded articular projectionCondyle
Armlike bar of boneRamus

Bone Markings - Depressions and Openings

Question Answer
Canal-like passagewaymeatus
Cavity within a boneSinus
Shallow basin-like depressionFossa
narrow, slit-like openingfissure
Round or oval opening through a boneForamen

Gross Anatomy of Bones: Bone Textures

Question Answer
Dense outer layerCompact Bone
Honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrowcancellous bone
Long bones consist of adiaphysis and a epiphysis
Tubucular shaft that forms the axis of long bones, composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity, and yellow bone marrow is contained in the medullary cavityDiaphysis
Expanded ends of long bones, exterior is compact bone and the interior is spongy bone, joint surface is covered with articular (hyaline) cartilageEpiphysis
___Separates the diaphysis from the epiphysesEpipheseal Line

Bone Membranes

Question Answer
Double layered protective membranePeriosteum
Delicate Membrane covering internal surfaces of boneEndosteum


Question Answer
Outer fibrous layer isdense irregular connective tissue
Inner osteogenic layer is composd of _______ and _________osteoblast and osteoclasts
Richly supplied with ____________, ___________, and __________, which enter the bone via nutrient forminanerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels
Secured to underlying bone bySharpey's fibers

Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones

Question Answer
Thin plates of periostuem covered compact bone on the outside with endosteum covered _________ on the inside. spongy bone/diploe
Have nodiaphysis or epiphyses
Contain ____________ between the trabeculaeBone marrow

Location of Hematopoietic Tissue

Question Answer
In infantsmedullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
In adultsdiploe of flat bones and the head of the femur and humerus

Microscopic Structure of Bone: Compact Bone

Question Answer
the structural unit of compact boneHaversian system, or osteon
Weight bearing, column like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagenLamella
Central channel containing blood vessels and nervesHaversian, or central canal
Channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting bloodd and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of teh Haversian canalVolkmann's canals
Mature bone cellsOsteocytes
Small Cavities in bone that contain osteocytesLacunae
Hairliek canals that conenct lacunae to each other and the central canalCanaliculi

Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic

Question Answer
Bone-forming cellsOsteoblasts
Mature bone cellsOsteocytes
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrixOsteoclasts
Unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagenOsteoid

Chemical Composition of Bone: Inorganic

Question Answer
Mineral saltshydroxyapatite
hydroxyapatites are __________ of bone by mass65%
hydroxyapatite are mainlyCalcium phosphates
hydroxyapatites are responsible for _________________ and its resistance to ________________Bone hardness; compression

Homeostatic Imbalances

Question Answer
Bones are indequately mineralized causingsoftened, weakened bones
Main symptom is ____ when weight is put on affected bonepain
Caused by ____________________________, or by ______________________insufficient calcium in the diet; Vitamin D deficiency
Question Answer
Bones of children are inadequately mineralized causingsoftened, weakened bones
___________ and ________________ of the _________________ are commonBowed legs; deformities; pelvis, skull, and ribcage
Caused by ____________, or by vitamin ___ deficiencyinsufficient calcium in diet, D
Question Answer
Group of diseases in which bone _________ outpaces bone depositresorption
_____________ of the spine is most vulnerableSpongy Bone
Occurs most often in _______________ womenPostmenopausal
Bones become so fragile that sneezing or stepping off a curb can causefractures

Osteoporosis: Treatment

Question Answer
_________ and _________ supplementsCalcium and Vitamin D
Increased ___________ exerciseWeight-bearing
Hormone (_____________) replacement therapy (HRT) slows bone lossestrogen
Natural _____________ cream prompts new bone growthprogestrone
____________ increase bone mineral densityStatins

Paget's Disease

Question Answer
Characterized by excessive...bone formation and break down
Pagetic bone with and excessively high ration of ______ to _________ is formedwoven, compact bone
_____________ activity wanes, but ____________ activity continues to work Osteoclast, Osteoblast
Usually localized in the _____________________spine, pelvis, femur, and skull
Unknown cause (possiblty _____)viral
Treatment include the drugs _________ and __________Didronate and Fosamax

Fetal Primary Ossification Centers

Developmental Aspects of Bones
Question Answer
____________ give rise to embryonic mesenchymal cells, which produce membranes and cartilages that for the embryonic skeletonMesoderm
The embryonic skeleton __________ in a predictable timetable that allows fetal age to be easily determined for sonogramsOsssifies
By birth, most long bones are well ossified (except for their _____________)epiphyses
By age ___, nearly all bones are completely ossified25
In old age, bone ___________________ pedominatesresorption
A single gene that codes for __________________ docking determines both the tendency to accumulate bone mass early in life, and the risk for osteoporosis later in lifeVitamin D