Non-Essential Trace Ions

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 16:33

Section 1

Question Answer
FluorideOccurrence (as Fluorine)
Fluorine– Highly irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membrane
Freon (CF2Cl2): Freon (CF2Cl2):
Teflon: A polymer of tetra fluoro-ethylene – container of HF
FluorideExtremely germicidal
Calcium Hydroxyapatite, Ca10(P04)6(OH)2Major component of bones and teeth
Replacement of -OH- with F-causes the formation of fluoroapatite, which has a lower solubility than hydroxyapatite.
Pharmacological Actions (F)• Enhances remineralization and inhibits demineralization. • Studies have shown that supplementation lowers the incidence of osteoporosis.
Toxicity(F)Binds to ribosomes and inhibits protein synthesis
(fluorosis) – Skeletal fluorosis – Dental fluorosisChronic exposure to high fluorine may cause ?

Section 2

Question Answer
Sodium FluorideGenerally a protoplasmic poison • Excellent antiseptic and has been used as preservative • Research: Significant correlation between low bone density and low fluoride content.
Sodium FluoridePrevents dental caries – Fluoride-containing drinking water
Sodium MonofluorophosphatePO3F2− + OH− → HPO42− + F−
Sodium Monofluorophosphate – Teeth does not require pre-treatment before application – No hazard with respect to local toxicity or systemic intoxication
Stannous FluorideValuable adjunct in the prevention of caries and seems to have a definite superiority over NaF: – Simplified application – Greater effectiveness (anticariogenic)
DentrificeCrest toothpaste

Section 3

Question Answer
Bromidetreatment of epilepsy.
Bromideuse declined after the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs
BromideStill found in prescription and OTC drugs due to its sedative effect.
Bromismbromide intoxication (Bromide acne) • Primarily a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder, manifested as headache, tremor, irritability, slurred speech, confusion, lethargy, hallucinations, psychosis, ataxia, and, if severe, stupor and coma.
NaClAntidote for Bromism?
Bromide PsychosisMental disease

Section 4

Question Answer
BromineWhen handling bromine, it is always advisable to have ammonia water within reach to stop its action
Bromine T.S.(Bromine Water)
Bromine, Tenth Normal Solution(Koppeschaar’s Solution)
BromineWhen handling bromine, it is always advisable to have ammonia water within reach to stop its action
Bromine T.S. (Bromine Water) Saturated solution of bromine prepared by agitating from 2-3 mL of bromine with 100 mL of cold distilled water in glass-stoppered bottle (coated with petrolatum)
Bromine, Tenth Normal Solution (Koppeschaar’s Solution)Solution of potassium bromate (3mg) and potassium bromide (15mg) in water sufficient to make a liter.

Section 5

Question Answer
Br2 + 2Cl-2Br- + Cl2 →
brown CHCl3Br2 + CHCl3 →
AgBr↓ + NO3-AgNO3 + Br- →
no reactionAgBr↓ + HNO3 →
Ag(NH3)2Br + 2H2OAgBr↓ + 2NH4OH →

Section 6

Question Answer
Potassium Bromide (KBr)Central depressant,Employed in cases of mental excitement and all conditions arising from, e.g. insomia, nervousness, etc and Controls seizures of epilepsy
Sodium BromideSedative due to its central depressant effect

Section 7

Question Answer
LithiumPhysical Properties – Lightest of all metals – Preserved by coating with petrolatum
Lithium • Behaves systemically very much like K ion. • Depressant to the CNS and to the circulation • Has diuretic action • Stimulates the vagus and my produce gastro-enteritis
Lithium• Now recognized as a “Mood-Stabilizing Agent” • Used in mania and bipolar manic-- ‐depressive illness.

Section 8

Question Answer
Li2CO3↓ + 2Na+2Li+ + Na2CO3
(NH4)2CO3 + 2LiCl(white)Li2CO3↓ + 2NH4Cl →

Section 9

Question Answer
Lithium Bromide (LiBr.xH2O)Used as sedative because of the central depressant properties of bromide ion.

Section 10

Question Answer
GoldKing of All Metals
goldPhysical and Chemical Properties – Most malleable and ductile metal – Inactive and permanent metal – Dissolved by Selenic Acid [Au3(SeO4)3] – Aqua Regia (?) – best reagent for dissolving gold metal – Purple of Cassius (reaction?)
Rheumatoid ArthritisChronic inflammatory disease characterized by the migration of activated phagocytes and leukocytes into synovial tissue, which causes progressive destruction of cartilage bone and joint swelling.
GoldTreatment for RA?
aurosomes.Gold accumulates in the lysosomes of synovial cells and macrophages, forming gold laden deposits
Goldtaken up by macrophages and inhibits antigen processing and decreases phagocytic activity.

Section 11

Question Answer
Gold Sodium ThiosulfateIM treatment for nondisseminated lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
AurothioglycanilideN.N.D. (Lauron, alpha- Auromercaptoacetanilide) • Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis • Administered as a suspension in sesame oil (IM)
Aurothioglucose Contains nmt 5% sodium acetate (stabilizer)Tx of Rheumatoid Arthritis and non- disseminating lupus erythematosus • IM in the form of suspension in vegetable oil
Gold Sodium Thiomalate• Antirheumatic • IV •
MyochrysineCommercial Preparation of Gold Sodium Thiomalate

Section 12

Question Answer
Arsenic• Very common environmental toxicant • Protoplasmic poison
> Arsenic5+ > Organic ChemicalsArsine (AsH3) > Arsenic3+
Toxicity of ArsenicBinds w/ the thiol groups in the tissue
BALToxicity of Arsenic antidote?
Acute Poisoning (Ar)GI discomfort, burning lips, constriction of the throat, difficulty in swallowing, projectile vomiting, and severe diarrhea • Oliguria with proteinuria and hematuria eventually, skeletal muscle cramps and severe thirst! • Shock; coma and death. In severe poisoning, death can occur within an hour
Chronic Poisoning (Ar)Chronic Poisoning(ArThe most common early signs of chronic arsenic poisoning are muscle weakness and aching, skin pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, and edema. • GI involvement is less prominent in long-term exposures. • Garlic odor of the breath and perspiration, excessive salivation and sweating, stomatitis, generalized itching, sore throat, coryza, lacrimation, numbness, burning or tingling of the extremities, dermatitis, and alopecia.
ArsenicUses Arsenic – Anti-leukemic activity (1878) • Trisenox ®: Arsenic Trioxide in water with NaOH and dil. HCl to adjust pH (7.5-8.5) – Polycythemia vera – Antiprotozoal infection (Syphilis)

Section 13

Question Answer
Fowlers SolutionPotassium Arsenite Solutions
Fowler’s SolutionK2CO3 + AsO3 with distilled water;insecticide
Gutzeit Test Used to detect excessive quantities of arsenic – Treat with sulphuric acid, then further treated with sulphurous acid. (to reduce arsenic to arsenous ion to produce Arsine)

Section 14

Question Answer
Antimony (Sb)Stibium
Antimony Potassium TartrateTartar Emetic
Antimony (Sb)Treatment of: – Protozoan infections – Schistosomiasis – Leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
SbTrivalent form > Pentavalent form

Section 15

Question Answer
Barium (Ba)Found useful in treating special forms of heart disease.
Stimulates smooth muscle (laxative action)(Ba)Used by the pharmacologist in studying antispasmodics
Barium Sulfate(suphate)Can be mistakenly prescribed as barium sulfide or barium sulfite.
Barium (Ba)used a diagnostic agent

Section 16

Question Answer
Cadmium (Cd) • Naturally occurring minor element and one of the metallic components in the earth’s crust and oceans • Produced as a by-product from the extraction, smelting and refining of the nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead and copper.
tai-Itai Disease: The Ouch-ouch diseaseSymptoms are osteomalacia, osteoporosis and renal failure. • Similar ionic radius with Ca+2, may compete with cellular transporters! • Renal damage causes disruption in activation of Vitamin D.
Itai-Itai Disease: The Ouch-ouch diseaseanemia, teeth discoloration and loss of smell (anosmia).

Section 17

Question Answer
PbS (Galena) – most important and widely distributedSource of Lead
Affinity to SH- groups.Toxicity of Lead
Acute Lead Poisoning• Relatively infrequent and follows ingestion of acid soluble lead compounds or inhalation of lead vapors • Local actions in the mouth produce marked astringency, thirst and a metallic taste. • Nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting • Stools may be black from lead sulfide, and there may be diarrhea or constipation. • Acute CNS symptoms include paresthesias, pain, and muscle weakness • An acute hemolytic crisis sometimes causes severe anemia and hemoglobinuria.
Chronic Lead PoisoningGI, neuromuscular, CNS, hematological, renal, and other disturbances, occurring separately or in combination. • The CNS syndrome, or lead encephalopathy, is more common among children; the GI syndrome is more prevalent in adults • Early signs of lead encephalopathy include clumsiness, vertigo, ataxia, falling, headache, insomnia, restlessness, and irritability; delirium with repetitive tonic-clonic convulsions or lethargy and coma follow.
• Calcium Disodium Edetate (EDTA) • DimercaprolTreatment for Lead poisoning
Lead Subacetate SolutionGoulard’s Extract
Diluted Lead Subacetate Solution Lead Water
Lead Monoxide (PbO)Litharge