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Non-essential trace ion part 2

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dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 16:41

Section 1

Question Answer
Mercury (Hg)Quicksilver or liquid silver
Mercury (Hg)an be obtained from HgS or Cinnabar (Crystalline red)
Elemental Mercury • Sources:– Liquid Form: Measuring devices; disc batteries; fluorescent light bulbs; amalgams – Vapor form: burning fossil fuels; mining
Exposure Pathways:– Inhalational: easily absorbed; can cross BBB – Dermal: minimal absorption – Placental: can accumulate in the fetus – Oral: minimal absorption
Inorganic Mercury • Sources:Mercurous or Mercuric salts: still used in the industry as protein precipitants, disinfectant, parasiticide
Exposure Pathways:– Oral: gastric irritant but low systemic absorption unless protective barrier is compromised – Dermal: poor absorption unless exposed to large amounts
Organic Mercury • Sources:– Hg from industrial processes are taken up by other organisms and is converted to organic compounds. – Organic Hg: used as fungicide
Exposure Pathways:– Oral: completely absorbed due to lipid solubility – CNS: easily crosses BBB – Placenta and Breast Milk: easily crosses placenta and accumulates in breast milk
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Section 2

Question Answer
HgO↓ + H2O + 2Na+(yellow)Hg2+ + 2NaOH →
HgI2↓ + 2K+(scarlet)Hg2+ + 2KI →
K2[HgI4](soluble)HgI2↓ + 2KI →
Hg2(OH)2↓ + 2Na+(black)Hg22+ + 2NaOH →
Hg2Cl2↓ + 2H+(white)Hg22+ + 2HCl →
Hg(NH2)Cl↓ + Hg↓ + NH4Cl + 2H2O(black)Hg2Cl2↓ + NH4OH →
Hg2I2↓ + 2K+(yellow)Hg22+ + 2KI →
K2[HgI4] + Hg↓(green)Hg2I2↓ + 2KI →
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Section 3

Question Answer
Mercury• Has diuretic action – Due to direct renal effect • Antiseptic action – Protein precipitant – Combine with –SH group of bacterial cells • Antisyphilic action – Mercurous chloride • Cathartic Action (Has laxative effect) • Parasiticidal and Fungicidal Action – Ammoniated Mercury Ointment (Blue ointment)
MercuryPoisoning (Protoplasmic) can be caused by: – Organic Hg compounds – Inorganic Hg compounds
Minamata DiseaseMercury Poisoning!
HgNH2ClAmmoniate Mercury
non-fusible white precipitateAmmoniate Mercury is heated, it is sometimes known as?
(fusible white precipitate)non-fusible white precipitate to distinguish it from a related compound, Hg(NH3)2Cl2
Ammoniated MercuryUses – Dusting powder against eczema and parasitic skin diseases – Anti-infective – Anti-staphylococcal infections
Mercuric ChlorideCorrosive sublimate
Mercuric ChlorideUses – Antiseptic – NaCl reduces irritation – Has diuretic effect
Mercuric OxideYellow to orange yellow (HgO) • Aka Yellow precipitate
Mercuric Oxide Against inflammatory eye conditions such as blepharitis and conjunctivitis
Mercurous ChlorideCalomel
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Section 4