New Heaven, New Earth -- Sicily

isabel's version from 2015-05-17 09:49

Section 1

Question Answer
Roger II's corination1130 - first unification of Sicily & Southern Italy since Roman Empire
"Mosaic of different political units"Hiroshi Takayama, 1933
Centre of Norman's royal courtPalermo
Mixed titlesRoman, Greek, Arab - most important military power 'amirates'/emir of Palermo also
Changes to law etcMore channels for justice
Difference between control in Sicily/mainlandMore direct royal control in Sicily, mainlaind ruled by barons
Roger II's rulelargely ruled himself, appointed strong hea ministers & took time for family to take control again
Northern Immigatrationmakes society more European by the Hohenstaufens, including more intolerant
Expulsion of minoritiesMuslims expelled to Lucceria - purpose built with mosque, later enslaved by Angevians
Better words than 'tolerant/intolerant'Cosmopolitan: 12th c. ->13th c. - homogenous & closed minded, more like the rest of Latin Christendom.
Affect of increased power of papacyEncouraged ideas of intolerance
Traders in Sicily fromAmalfi (Greece), Genoa, Florence, Pisa and Lombardy
Historic cultures in SicilyPhoenician, Classical Greek, Roman, Byzantine Greek, Arab
Roger II & successors not interested in intervention in natives' everyday affairs...... only dealt with major issues of public order & morality & where practise conflicted with royal law (Loud)
Normans had no conscious policy of uniformity (but self-confidence and increasing numbers)Donald Matthews
Necessity caused toleration - not an open mind-setMalcom Barber
Roger II's chanceryTrilingal
Roger II's sarcophogusSupported by Latin, Norman, Greek & Arab figures
"The Baptized sultan"Roger II: astrologers & philosophers at court, personal Muslim guard - "inspired more by common sense than theory"
Slow Norman take-overMeant it was necessary to keep local customs & personnel (Loud)
Native JewsSeen as a useful ally by the invaders (Chazan) for maintenance of sophisticated society
Muslim &Jewish immigrationIncreasing persecution in Iberia and North Africa in the 12th century - attracted to a secure & prosperous community, patronized by the court.
The Norman's love of fashionMuslims & Christians could be hard to tell apart (Catlos) Women worse veils, henna, scents etc
Despite cultural exchange, Friday prayer meetings were forbidden...... reminds historian not to use modern standards of 'toleration'
Persian and Southern Asian tales told at Norman Court/Hispanso-Arabic cultures in Arabic...... helped birth troubadour & courtly love traditions of high medieval Europe (inclu. stories which would become 'Thousand and one nights')
Famous Arab geographerMuhammad al-Idrisi, famous world map & book c. 1154.
Success of Jews into 13th centuryMedics and philosophers - medics eminent even in non-Jewish circles
Caused the exile of the MuslimsThe elite's established power imitated the next dynasty (Catlos). Voluntary/forced exile 12th/13th c
*Why Jews were not persecuted until much later than the rest of EuropeLong established community fulfilling diverse economic/social roles - in the north found a place performing specific & disliked jobs (eg money-lender)
Byzantine artExploited for connotations: see Cefalu Cathedral mosaics
Establishment of monarchy slow100+ years
Urban roles of MuslimsMerchants, officials, traders, sailors and artisans
Architectural stylesTraditional Arab features such as brick patterning and arcades disappearing by 13th century - fashion or ...?
Attitude to native GreeksNot competing for/recently in power so no need to despise, slow transition to Latin Christianity, considered a 'subject' people
Sicily was famed for...... Gardens, fertility and wealth. Land of 'milk & honey' (produce included: salt, wheat, timber, fruit, silk)
Success of first monarchsDue to personal qualities/ personality of Roger II & William I & early reliance of Papacy gave freedom from Papal tyranny
Right to rule Sicily & Southern Italy given byPope Analectus for support in the Papal election
Geographic importanceTrade, crusading, near Papacy
Norman's invasion driven byLand hunger & rivalries in Normandy
Superior attitude of monarchy to ChurchJohn of Salisbury: "reduced the church in his kingdom to slavery"
1170s/80sreality matched closest to "flourishing, multi-cultural idyll"
Ibn Jubayr1185, King "admirable for his just conduct" Island is "a daughter of Spain"
French upper class establishmentAfter a revolt in 1269 - admin now done in French too, and centre of gov moved to Naples. discontent under French led to rise of Vespers 1282.
Why was Sicily an established centre for Jews?Allowed to flourish under Muslim rule.
Jews continued to mediate Byzantine & Muslim knowledge Including in government sponsored roles under Frederick II
Myth of NormansR H C Davies - Normans themselves = Frenchmen
When the Feudal system developedWeaker than west & co-existed with native forms
The EposcipyUnlike England not replaced on take-over
Quite Norman, but not really a take-overG A Loud
Why did Normans adapt Arab style architecture?To rival the Byzantines (Burman) whilst using their decorative symbolism
Tolerance?'aesthetic tolerance' (Burman)
Roger I established tradition of...... loyalty to the crown above abstract faith. (Burman)
Non-involvement in crusades of Roger IImother's failed marriage to King of Jerusalem, possible felt less hostile?
William the good & wrote in Arabic, kept Muslim concubines, black Muslim slaves, physicians and astrologers
*The Norman family 'a comet' leaving no permanent legacy. Island's culture always transient & new.Burman

Section 2

Question Answer
"The Formation of a Persecuting Society"R. I. Moore