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Question Answer
NeurotransmittersThe molecules stored in membrane bound vesicles in the axon terminals
Neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic membrane of the axon terminal into the synaptic cleft
The molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft to bind to specific receptors on the surface of thepostsynaptic membrane
By binding to the receptor the neurotransmitter, helps totransmit the action potential signal
Excitatory transmittercauses the cell to depolarize, moving its membrane potential closer to threshold and more likely to have an action potential.
Inhibitory Transmittercauses the cell to hyperpolarize, moving its membrane potential farther away from threshold and less likely to have an action potential.
Temporal summationone neuron talking to another neuron. We send a message rapidly over another to create an action potential
Spatial summationmany neurons talking to one neuron
If sodium channel opensEPSP
If Potassium channels openIPSP

Criteria to be a neurotransmitter:

Question Answer
1The machinery to make the molecule must exist in the cell (synthesis)
2Must be present in the cell
3Must be releasable from the terminal
4There must be a mechanism to turn the transmitter off. This can be accomplished by enzymes that part down the transmitter or there needs to be pumps to clear the transmitter out of the synaptic cleft back into the first neuron of into glial cells
Neurotransmitter are able to transfer into another cell vialock and key.
The action of a neurotransmitter is dependent onthe receptor.


Question Answer Column 3
Acetylcholinefirst one to be discovered. cells that release it are called cholinergic. Acetylcholine binds tonicotinic receptor and muscarinic receptors
Acetylcholine can beinhibitory or excitatory.
Enzyme that breaks it down is calledacetylcholinesterase
Plants make receptorsmore efficiently

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

Question Answer
Cells that release it calledAdrenergic,
Norepinephrine and epinephrine belongs to a class of molecules calledCatecholamines.
Binds toalpha and beta receptors.
Broken down by the enzymes calledmonoamine oxidases (MAO)
Made in the adrenal medulla
Base structure or norepinephrine and epinephrinetyrosine
MAO Blockers blockersNorepinephrine goes up


Question Answer
Serotonin is found incentral nervous system
Involved indepression and sleep.
Depression does not involve the whole brain, so when you take serotonin, it can createside effect.
SSRIdrugs that block re-uptake. Serotonin increases. Side effect include sleep disorders and a lack of sex drive


Question Answer
Dopamine is found inthe CNS
Dopamine is involved inParkinson’s disease, movement disorders’s, and the brains system mechanism for reward
Lack of dopamine can lead toParkinson. May be involved with Schizophrenia
Dopamine can contribute toaddictive behaviors


Question Answer
Predominateexcitatory transmitter in the central nervous system. Responsible for brain cell death after stroke, trauma, seizures.
Glutamate is part of theKerbs cycle
An amino acidglutamic acid
Glutamate is theMost potent excitatory inhibitor;
Glutamate cankill cell’s mitochondria due to its excitatory potential
MSGmolecule in Chinese food that gives you a headache


Question Answer
GABA isa predominant inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system
Most potentinhibitor; acts the opposite of glutamate

Neuromuscular junction

Question Answer
Neuromuscular junction motor neuron to a muscle fiber; that is how it knows when to contract.
The neuron directly communicate withthe skeletal muscles.
Every muscle fiber is innervates withone terminal.
In a neuromuscular junction, there istemporal summation
Neuromuscular is achemically gated channel
As you contract more of your muscleyou recruit more cells.
There are increase number ofreceptors in the cell membrane of the muscle cell so there is an increase opportunity for acetylcholine to be released
Action potential in presynaptic cell will lead to action potential inthe post synaptic cell

Steps in the neuromuscular junction

Question Answer
1Action potential travels down axon to the terminal. Sodium and calcium and going down the axon terminal.
2Calcium (voltage gated) channels open. Calcium will bind to the Ach Vesicles. The vesicles will the attracted axon terminal membrane. Is become one continuous membrane via exocytosis.
3Dumps contents out into synaptic cleft. Post synaptic membrane has nicotinic acetylchloline receptors. Lets sodium come into the cell via voltage gated calcium release. The sodium that enters the muscle cell creates the action potential. Travels down the muscle fiber to the T tubule.
5It goes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and it releases calcium inside the cell, which binds to the triponin, which pulls the tropomyosin out of the groove.
Then neurotransmitter binds to receptors on cell membrane of muscle cellMotor end plate (Post synaptic membrane).
6Acetylcholinesterase break down ACH
Muscles are connected viagap junction
Onlytemporal summation can occur.
Myasthentia gravisautoimmune disease that destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. You can treat this by filtering the blood and draining antibodies

Basic Neuroanatomy

Question Answer
the more cortex an animal hasthe more smarter that they are


Question Answer
Lobes in the brainFrontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
Frontalfront of the brain, responsible for personality traits, abstract thought and motor function. Motor function localized in primary motor cortex, which is found in the precentral gyrus
Parietalseparated from the frontal lobe by the Central Sulcus – responsible for somatosensory function which is found in the postcentral gyrus
Temporallower half of the cortex – responsible for: speech, memory, learning, hearing
Occipitallocated at the back of the brain – responsible for vision

Other parts of the brain

Question Answer
Thalamusmajor sensory relay center- sends sensory information to the correct areas of the cortex where sensation is perceived. Will direct it to the correct place in the cortex
Hypothalamuslies below the thalamus – controls autonomic function as well as hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland.
Basal gangliacontrols secondary motor movements – area associated with Parkinson’s disease
Brainstemvegetative function – respiration, heart rate – life supporting functions that we don’t think about but never the less occur
Spinal CordCervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral

Central Nervous System

Question Answer
The neocortexcerebral cortex
DiencephalonThalamus, hypothalamus, Basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus)
Brain stemmidbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Grey mattera lot of cell bodies (somas)
Where is grey matter found in the brain?top 6 layers of the brain
White mattera lot of axons
A fold is called agyrus
A groove is called asulcus
FissureDeep sulcus
Cerebellumthere are as many neurons in the cerebellum as there is in the rest of the brain. Regulates fine motor control.
Nucleigroups of neuronal cell bodies in a certain location in the brain in CNS
Gangliongroup of neuronal cell bodies in PNS
NervesBundles of axons in the PNS
TractPathways in the PNS
There are nonerves in CNS