ilm1993's version from 2018-01-25 02:51

The Cell

Question Answer
Animal cellneeds oxygen and has a cell membrane.
Cytoplasmliquid inside cell; mostly water
Mitochondriainvolves in cellular respiration; creates ATP
With oxygen, aerobic makes18 times more ATP then glycolysis
Nucleuswhere DNA is made; genetic blueprint. DNA makes proteins, which then makes enzymes
Proteins can be affected byPH or voltage process by changing its shape.
Golgi bodypackages proteins to be secreted
Lysosomes break down biomolecules
Vacuolescontain cellular waste
Cell membranephospholipid bilayer and proteins
Integral proteinfrom one side of the membrane to another. Delivers message to the inside of membrane. Can make channels.
Peripheral proteinprotein that is only on one side of membrane
Proteins channels regulate movement byshape, type of charge.
Endoplasmic Reticulumpackaging system of the cell

Active and passive transportation

Question Answer
Diffusionfrom high to low with no energy needed. PASSIVE
Osmosismovement of water from high to low. PASSIVe
SolutesParticles in solution
Hydrophyllicdissolves in water
Hydrophobic doesn’t dissolve in water
Facilitated diffusionrequires no energy. Something is aiding during diffusion. Goes through a channel
Active transportationneeds ATP. Going against the gradient
Passive transportchannel mediated and carrier mediated


Question Answer
Hypotonicinto the cell (cell burst)
Hypertonicout of the cell (crenation)
Isotonic no movement

Sodium-Potassium pump

Question Answer
What can create action potential?muscles and neurons
3 Na out, 2 K incell losing positive charge
ATP turns intoADP+Pi
Enzyme is used to break downATP to ADP


Question Answer
Functionoutside to inside of the cell
Pinocytosisbringing in little particles
Phagocytosisbringing in big particles
Exocytosisinside to outside of cell ;Requires energy

Types of Neurons

Question Answer
SensoryAfferent; detect stimuli (changes in the environment); transmits info towards CNS
InterneuronsInhibitor; interconnecting pathways. It is NOT one to one communication
MotorEfferent neurons; muscles
Neuronsdo not go through mitosis.

Structure of Neuron

Question Answer
Cell body (soma)contains nucleus
Dendritereceives messages
Axonallows cells to communicate with other cells
Cells are talking tomany cells
Axon hillockwhere cell body and axon merge. Where action potential starts
Myelin sheatholigodendrocyte and schwann cells. Makes communication between cells faster
Nodes of Ranvierspaces between myelin sheath
Synaptic terminalat the end of axon; contains neurotransmitters
Nodes of Ranvierspaces between myelin sheath
Synaptic terminalat the end of axon; contains neurotransmitters
Collateral brancheswhere axons branch off
MS attacks myelin
*Any place in axon can make action potential

Supportive cells (neuroglia)

Question Answer
Neuroglia to neuron ratio50:1
Neurogliaprovide structure, CNS, Myelin and responds to pain
Neuroglia characteristiccan divide, framework for nervous tissue, prevents neurons from touching themselves
Oligodendrocytesmakes myeline in CNS
Ependymal cellsline ventricles, secretes CF
Characteristic of ependymal cellscuboidal epithelium with cilia
Microgliaphagocitize injuries and cellular debris
Astrocytesmost abundant
Characteristic of astrocytesblood brain barrier, converts glucose to lactate, creates glial scars
Myelin sheathhelps signals travel faster
Slow signals instomach and pupil dilation
Fast signals are found inSkeleton


Question Answer
Positive chargecation
Negative chargeanion
What is the leakiest cationK
Resting membrane potential-70 mV
Why is the inside more negative than positive?Proteins can be dissolved in a solution
Depolarization-70 mV to 0 mV. going more positive; Na channels open via diffusion
Hyper-polarizationneuron becomes more negative
Change in voltagechange in protein shape
RepolarizationK close
Absolute Refractory periodcannot have action potential
Relative refractory periodnot the normal response, smaller response

Action Potential characteristics

Question Answer
CharacteristicAll or nothing, Requires energy, Can travel both directions
Membrane behind it isrefactoring
Saltatory conductionaction potential jumps from one node to another

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