Neuroscience Quiz 1

kisferkate's version from 2016-09-27 04:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Step 1Identify structural dysfunction
Step 2Identify impaired vs. spared functions
Step 3create theories to guide interpretation of performance
disconnection syndromeDisruption in communication pathways
Bell-Magendie LawSpinal nerve roots= motor, Posterior roots=sensory
Diseases with Basal Ganglia dysfunctionParkinson’s, Huntington’s


Question Answer
Classical antiquityLocalization of the soul
Medieval3 part model of cognition and the Cell Doctrine (ventricular localization
The Modern EraLocalizing cognitive functions to the cerebral cortex.
Egyptiansbrain=waste heart=soul
Alcmaeonbrain=organ of thought
HippocratesEpilepsy in brain, brain=power
Plato and DemocritusTriune Soul
Triune Soul (head)intellect
Triune Soul (heart)anger, fear, pride, courage
Triune Soul (liver)lust, greed, desire
Aristotleheart= soul
Galencortex&heart=/= soul, the tripartite theory
the tripartite theory each ventricle=Sensory functions/Imagination, Reasoning, Memory

Section 2

Question Answer

Section 3

Question Answer
frontalvoluntary motor control, higher-level thinking, planning

Section 4

Question Answer
Meninges: dura matertough mother, Outside
meninges: ArachnoidMiddle layer + csf subarachnoid layer
Meninges: Pia MaterInside, delicate layer

Section 5

Question Answer
Neocortex 4Primary receiving layer
Neocortex 3Sending Layer (association cortex and commissures)
Neocortex 5brainstem and spinal cord
Neocortex 6thalamus
Neocortex 1surface

Section 6

Question Answer
Limbic SystemEmotion, motivation and memory
HippocampusLimbic, Memory & Emotion
AmygdalaLimbic, Emotion (Fear & Threat)
Cingulate GyrusLimbic, Emotion
Mamillary BodiesLimbic

Section 7

Question Answer
Neuronsexcitatory or inhibitor
Pyramidal cells Δ80%, communication and coordination, Excitatory
Apical dendritegathering information from above layers, goes to surface
Basilar dendritesallowing dendrites to reach out in basilar layer
Non-Pyramidal CellsEvery other neuron
Interneuronshort (local) connections
Gliasupport functions
glia Astrocytesexchange chemicals with neurons, remove waste material
glia Oligodendrocyte build myelin
Radial gliaguide migration & growth during development

Section 8

Question Answer
Cytoarchitectonic maps (Brodmann’s map)cell layers, Identified 52 areas, Structural classification & functional differences
Receptive fieldsregion of the sensory surface that makes a cell fire
Receptive fields: touchthe location on the body
Receptive fields: visionlocations on the retina
Receptive fields: auditionregions of the basilar membrane
of monkey experimentSewed two fingers together, activity is then correlated across two fingers; then unstitched and pulled apart: the two finger areas on the map merged together
Gall & Spurzheim Phrenology Researchers

Section 9

Question Answer
Anterior Cerebral Arteryblood from Internal Carotid arteries ->forebrain & parietal
Middle Cerebral Arteryblood from carotid artery-> cerebral cortex & temporal
Posterior Cerebral Artery blood from the vertebral artery -> occipital
Circle of Willisallows some redundancy in blood supply to various areas of the brain

Section 10

Question Answer
Lesionarea of dead tissue
Infarctdead tissue resulting from an obstruction of blood vessels
Ischemiablood flow restricted, tissue starved of oxygen and nutrients (especially glucose)
Thrombosisblood clots form in a vessel, remains at point of formation
Embolismclot brought through blood from a larger vessel and forced into a smaller one: blood, fat, oxygen bubble
Arteriosclerosisthickening and hardening of the arteries
Hemorrhageabnormal flow of the blood
Subarachnoid Hemorrhagerupture of a cerebral artery
Hematomalocalized collection of blood outside the blood vessels
Subdural hematomaa clot of blood on the surface of the brain
Aneurysmvascular dilations, local defects in blood vessel elasticity -> rupture hematoma
Benign Tumorunlikely to reoccur, encapsulated
Malignant tumorlikely to reoccur, fast dividing cancer cells
Neurotoxicitytoxic, disrupting or killing neurons and glia
Strokeneurological symptoms as a result of severe interruption of blood flow
Open-head injuriesskull is penetrated, gun shot
Closed-head injuriesa blow to the head, car accident
cerebral edemacollection of fluid around damaged tissue, 2nd damage = pressure

Section 11

Question Answer
Structuralvisualize anatomical structure of the brain, CT MRI
Functionalvisualize and active process in the brain PET, fMRI, EEG, ERP
CATlow spatial, x-ray radiation, densities of tissues
MRIhigh spatial, time for protons to realign water in tissues, no metals (magnet)
PETlow spatial, low temporal, blood flow, resting vs specific task
fMRIbest spacial, high temporal, specific task
ERPWorst spacial, best temporal, neural activity particular event

Section 12

Question Answer
CaudalTail (posterior)
RostalFace (anterior)
Ventral: Front (anterior)
Dorsal: back (posterior)
Ipsilateral: same side
Contralateral: opposite side
unilateral: one side
bilateral: both
proximal: center
distal: away

Section 13

Ventral: Front (anterior)
Dorsal: back (posterior)
Ipsilateral: same side
Contralateral: opposite side
unilateral: one side
bilateral: both
proximal: center
distal: away