Neuroscience, Pschoanalytical Terminology & Psychologists

gscrafton111's version from 2017-07-18 10:10

Section 1

Question Answer
AcetylcholineAcetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics.
Eugene AserinskyEugene Aserinsky (May 6, 1921 – July 22, 1998), a pioneer in sleep research, was a graduate student at the University of Chicago in 1953 when he discovered REM sleep. He was the son of a dentist of Russian–Jewish descent. He made the discovery after hours spent studying the eyelids of sleeping subjects.
Autonomic Nervous SystemThe autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
Limbic SystemThe limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.

Section 2

Question Answer
AmygdalaFear and emotions - Lying deep in the center of the limbic emotional brain, this powerful structure, the size and shape of an almond, is constantly alert to the needs of basic survival including sex, emotional reactions such as anger and fear.
Brain StemThe part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. The brain stem controls functions basic to the survival of all animals, such as heart rate, breathing, digesting foods, and sleeping. It is the lowest, most primitive area of the human brain. Controls heart beat, breathing.
CerebellumTwo peach-size mounds of folded tissue located at the top of the brain stem, the cerebellum is the guru of skilled, coordinated movement (e.g., returning a tennis serve or throwing a slider down and in) and is involved in some learning pathways.
CerebrumThis is the largest brain structure in humans and accounts for about two-thirds of the brain’s mass. It is divided into two sides — the left and right hemispheres—that are separated by a deep groove down the center from the back of the brain to the forehead. These two halves are connected by long neuron branches called the corpus callosum which is relatively larger in women’s brains than in men’s.

Section 3

Question Answer
The Frontal LobeThe Frontal Lobe is the most recently-evolved part of the brain and the last to develop in young adulthood. It’s dorso-lateral prefrontal circuit is the brain’s top executive. It organizes responses to complex problems, plans steps to an objective, searches memory for relevant experience, adapts strategies to accommodate new data, guides behavior with verbal skills and houses working memory.
The Temporal LobeThe Temporal Lobe controls memory storage area, emotion, hearing, and, on the left side, language.
The Parietal LobeThe Parietal Lobe receives and processes sensory information from the body including calculating location and speed of objects.
The Occipital LobeThe Occipital Lobe processes visual data and routes it to other parts of the brain for identification and storage.

Section 4

Question Answer
Hippocampuslocated deep within the brain, it processes new memories for long-term storage. If you didn't have it, you couldn't live in the present, you'd be stuck in the past of old memories. It is among the first functions to falter in Alzheimer's.
HypothalamusLocated at the base of the brain where signals from the brain and the body’s hormonal system interact, the hypothalamus maintains the body’s status quo. It monitors numerous bodily functions such as blood pressure and body temperature, as well as controlling body weight and appetite.
ThalamusLocated at the top of the brain stem, the thalamus acts as a two-way relay station, sorting, processing, and directing signals from the spinal cord and mid-brain structures up to the cerebrum, and, conversely, from the cerebrum down the spinal cord to the nervous system.

Section 5

Question Answer
Ivan Pavlov(1849 - 1936) Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904,becoming the first Russian Nobel laureate. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Pavlov as the 24th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Pavlov's principles of classical conditioning have been found to operate across a variety of experimental and clinical settings, including educational classrooms.
Charles Sherrington(1857 - 1952) Won Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Edgar Adrian for their work on the function of neurons.hrough his seminal 1906 publication, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, he had effectively laid to rest the theory that the nervous system, including the brain, can be understood as a single interlinking network. His alternative explanation of synaptic communication between neurons helped shape our understanding of the central nervous system.

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