Neuroscience II

kisferkate's version from 2016-10-26 23:34

Section 1

Question Answer
binocular region where visual field overlaps
perimetric map map shows vision in quadrants
Hemianopiablindness in half the visual field
Scotomasmall area of blindness
Quadrantanopsiadefect affects 1/4 of the visual field
Gordon Holmesmapped visual field onto primary visual cortex, veterans
center part of retina takes of most spacearea of eye most sensitive
Retino-geniculo-striate pathway of visual information Optic nerve carries signals from the retina
Decussation (crossing) occurs atthe optic chiasm
Synapseat Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of thalamus
Optic radiationsto occipital lobe


Question Answer
Quantitative ApproachApplication of a preset battery of tests that have normative data
Qualitative ApproachA free from evaluation of the patient that is driven by obvious deficits


Flexible Assessment – One in which a full battery of tests is not given. Combines the qualitative and quantitative approach, focuses on quantitative tests that are relevant
Question Answer
Tests of General Intellectual AbilityThe Wechsler “family” of intelligence tests
Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)3-7 YO
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)6-16 YO
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III / WAIS IV)17+ YO
WAIS-IIIComposed of verbal and performance subtests, so provides a profile of abilities, VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ
WAIS-IVComposed of 10 subtests, so provides a profile of abilities, VCI,WMI, PRI, PSI, FSIQ, GAI
Verbal Comprehension IndexVCI
Working Memory IndexWMI
Perceptual Reasoning IndexPRI
Processing Speed IndexPSI
FSIQFull scale IQ
GAIGeneral Ability Index (uses only VCI & PRI)
Tests of Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities (WAIS)Block Design
Complex Figures testRey-Osterrieth complex figure / Taylor complex figure
Taylor Complex-Figure Test (tests)visuo-spatial long-term memory
Hooper Visual Organization TestVisual perception /Ability to integrate parts into wholes
Tests of Executive and Control AbilitiesTrail-Making Test /Porteus Maze Test / Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) / Stroop Task
Cognitive Abilities Measured by the Trail-Making TestMotor control /Visual attention / Visual search / Executive control abilities
Porteus Maze Test (3+)Non-language Test of Mental Ability – Typically used with low IQ subjects, Planning / Patience / Mental Alertness / Reveals temperamental defects that can interfere with learning
The Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test Subject sorts card according to rules based on different visual dimensions
The Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (cognitive abilities testedAttention / Strategy switching (cognitive flexibility) / Planning / Memory / Inhibition
Stroop Task (cognitive abilities tested)Primarily used to assess inhibition
Tests of MemoryDigit span / Corsi Blocks
Forward/Backward Digit Span Test (cognitive abilities tested)Verbal short-term memory / Executive functioning
Corsi Blocks (cognitive abilities tested)Visuo-spatial short-term memory/ Executive functioning
Tests of Language AbilitiesBoston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination / Token Test – receptive language / Boston Naming Test
Token Test (tests)Progressively Detects receptive language difficulties
Boston Naming Test (BNT)Confrontational word retrieval, Detects and assesses severity of Anomic Aphasia

Section 2

Question Answer
Ungerleider & Mishkin landmark and object discrimination tasks
Object Discrimination study and object and select the familiar object
Landmark discriminationselect foodwell closest to the tower
primates lesions in the temporal lobecouldn't do object discrimination
lesions in the parietal lobecouldn’t do the landmark discrimination
what pathwaysVentral stream
Ventral streamprocesses identity information
where pathways Dorsal stream
Dorsal stream processes spatial information
double dissociation logicLesion in one area of brain, you want to see impairment in one field and not the other
Magnocellularsensitive to movement (color blindness) contributes to “where pathway” fast conducting,
Parvocellular pathwaysassociation with colors, details; contributes to “what pathway” slow, color selective, high acuity
Early” visual areas of the primate cortex VI-V5
V1 (area 17)primary visual cortex
V2 (area 18)secondary visual cortex
V3global or coherent motion
V4visual cortex, V2 (area 18): secondary visual cortex, V3: global or coherent motion, V4: color
V5motion perception/local motion
Achromatopsia (cortical)inability to perceive color—color knowledge and color naming can be intact
Achromatopsia (retinal)photoreceptors affected. Sex linked. Can miss one of the three color sensitive photopigments
AkinetopsiaMotion blindness due to focal brain damage. Requires bilateral damage

Section 3

Question Answer
Apperceptiveimpaired shape identification, impaired copy, impaired matching. Trouble with objects, words, face recognition
IntegrativeIntermediate, can copy (fragmented) difficulty integrating parts into whole
Associative agnosiasImpaired recognition of complex forms and obj. Early visual processing is more intact
the symbolic search modelit accommodates various categories of agnosia
Shape codingno meaning at all, taking raw information and flushing it out, noticing patterns in the image. No recognition that one object is distinct from another object
Figure/ground feature integration groupingNoticing the difference between the figure an ground. Able to grow like objects together
Mapping to a Structural descriptionNOT naming the object! trying to make sense of the item. Fitting object to things you’ve seen before; classifying and categorizing them
Semantic KnowledgeNaming it and access to other knowledge about that object. What happens after you identify object.

Section 4

Question Answer
Gestalt grouping principles (Prägnanz)observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects
good continuationitems are close to each other makes us want to line them up —> group obj based on position.
Closureanything enclosed we group it into an obj
Similaritygroup small things together
Movementwhen things want to move together we want to group them together.

Section 5

Question Answer
Prosopagnosiacan’t recognize faces
Prosopagnosia (lesion locus)processed in the inferior right hemisphere, Bilateral lesion is most common
Prosopagnosia (expertise area)bird watchers say all birds the same
Patient CK (integrative agnosia)show him a painting of a picture and can’t recognize it, but flip it over and can immediately recognize that it is a face
Yin (Inversion Effect) different for faces than houses
specialized upright face processor, face recognition suffers more from inversion than other objects
Alexiaacquired letter-by-letter reading impairment without other salient language deficits, can write
Alexia (location of damage)unilateral LH lesion occipital-temporal region (Area 37).
Farah theory of object recognitionObject recognition relies on both, one may compensate for the other
Two specialized processors (decomposer)Left Hemisphere dominant, used for words and objects
Two specialized processors (Holistic Processing)used for faces and objects
Evidence for two processorspatterns of co-occurrence of object agnosia, prosopagnosia, and alexia
obj. agnosia co-occurs withpure alexia
prosopagnosiaco-occurs with object agnosia
pure alexia and prosopagnosia rarely co-occur withoutobject agnosia
DFdamage in ventral stream. apperceptive agnosia, posting bx
Posting Behavior (orientation of slot)patient can’t do task at all, can’t tell how it’s oriented
stick hand in the slotslow in correct orientation

Section 6

Question Answer
Optic ataxia (Reaching Disorder)“Where” damage. Patients can recognize objects. Cannot use visual information to guide their movements or eye movements
Optic ataxia (damage)inferior parietal lobe
Simultagnosiainability to see more than one object at a time. hard time tracing circle
Balint’s syndromedisorder of space exploration and space cognition
Balint’s syndrome (damage to)Bilateral posterior parietal damage
Balint’s syndrome (Gaze Apraxia)inability to move the eyes voluntarily to points in the visual field.
Balint's syndrome (Spatial Disorientation)inability to appreciate the “spatial properties” of objects: distance and size estimates impaired.
Balint's syndrome (Simultagnosia)inability to see more than one object at a time.
Left hemispatial neglect (damage to) one hemisphere (usually right, often along parietal-occipital junction
LH neglect (Anosognosia)unawareness of limb/denial of illness
LH neglectLeft hemiparetic arm, rightward gaze deviation, not blind just orient on that side
Object-centered neglectTwo separate objects so they handle the obj. independently neglecting the L. side for each of the objects
Typical lesion site for unilateral neglectunilateral parietal-occipital junction (area 7, 40) More sever with R. hemispheric lesions than L. hemispheric regions.
Body spaceanything that belongs to you
Egocentric spacespatial locations outside of body but with reference to it
Allocentric spacerepresentations of space in which a place is defined by a coordinate by a coordinate system that is independent of the observer
Egocentric subtypes: Retinotopic: moves around with the eyes
Egocentric subtypes: Hemispatialdefined by the midline of body
Allocentric subtypes: Obj. Centered Neglect, Behrmann & Tipperobj.-based or centered attention, rotating targets can still show neglect in patients with parietal lesions
Allocentric subtypes: Ladavasneglect in respects to gravitational space. Head tilted 90 degrees to the left so both targets are in the rvf response as though their head was not tilted - slower to respond to the left most target.
Human imaging of attentionprimate electrophysiology demonstrating parietal attention

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