Neuroscience - Final - Part 2

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-04-07 17:23

Learning and Memory

Question Answer
Ability to acquire new knowledge or skills through instruction/experienceLearning
The process by which new knowledge or skills are retained over timeMemory
Memory that lasts months, years, decadesLong Term Memory
Memory that lasts seconds to minutesShort Term Memory
Memory that lasts secondsWorking
Previous experiences, recognition, facts, events. Autobiographical.Two types of this memory - Episodic and SemanticDeclarative (Explicit) Memory
‘How-to’ memories, preferences, skilled movements. Two types of this memory - Procedural or ‘how to’, and the Perceptual Representation System (PRS)Non-Declarative (Implicit or Procedural) Memory
The emotional tone in memoryAmygdala
The learning and retention of motor skills and ‘habits’Striatum, Motor Cortex, Cerebellum
The long term memory storageNeocortex
The relay of stimuli to regions that determine relevanceThalamus
The formation of new memoriesHippocampus
Specific recall of events (time, place, etc)Episodic Memory
General recall of facts, concepts, not linked to a particular eventSemantic Memory
Identification of words/objects based on form/structurePRS
Physical/orthographic featuresVisual Word Form
Phonological/acoustic infoAuditory Word Form
How the parts form the whole wordsStructural Description
Visual word formAreas 18,19
Word meaningTemporal/Frontal
Global structure representationOccipito-Temporal
How to drive, ride a bike, throw a football, etc. ‘How-to’ and motor memoriesProcedural or Implicit Memory
Discrete memory bitsEngram
Processing of stimuli, attaching relevanceInformation Encoding/Acquisition
‘Laying down’ of memoriesConsolidation/Storage
Recall of memoriesRetrieval
Memorizing pictures involves this part of the brain and bilateral parahippocampal corticesRight Prefrontal Cortex
Memorizing words involves this part of the brain and bilateral parahippocampal corticesLeft Prefrontal Cortex

Tumors and Other Clinicals

Question Answer
Tumor originating in brainPrimary Brain Tumor
Most tumors are infratentorialChildren
Most tumors are supratentorialAdults
Tumor originating elsewhereSecondary (Metastatic) Brain Tumor
Refers to all glial cell tumors (including astrocytomas, oligodendrocytomas, ependymomas)Glioma
Well differentiated (not anaplastic)Low Grade
Poorly differentiated (anaplastic)High Grade
dedifferentiation of tissue. Thus, ‘poorly’ differentiated means little or no differentiationAnaplastic
‘Well’ differentiatedAnaplastic
Tumor may double in size in less than two weeks.Typically at gray/white matter interface, frequently resulting in inoperable tumors. Mean survival time is 8-10 months. 95% do not survive two years past tumor removalGlioblastoma Multiforme
Found in ventricles, arises from ependymal cellsEpendymoma
Tumor within the ventricles, arising from choroid plexus (more malignant form is carcinoma)Choroid Plexus Papilloma
Exclusive to the cerebellumMedulloblastoma
Benign tumor of the falxMeningioma
Peripheral, arises from Schwann cellsSchwannoma
Arises from pituitary. Comprises 10% of intracranial tumors.Pituitary Adenoma
Arise from remnants of Rathke’s Pouch. 9% of pediatric tumorsCraniopharyngioma
Symptoms include headaches are the most common tumor symptom, followed by seizures, visual disturbances. Other symptoms may include Confusion, disorientation, memory loss, etc. Cranial nerve palsies or sensory losses. Hemi-paresis or hemi-anesthesia of one side of the body (rarely, but sometimes, both sides)Space-Occupying Lesion
Pediatric tumors. Medulloblastomas are generally considered to be this type of tumor, although medulloblastomas may ‘behave’ a little differently from other tumors of the same typePrimary Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET)
Hearing loss balance problems are initial symptomsAcoustic Neuroma (Schwannoma)
Slow growing, symptoms include bitemporal hemianopia and pituitary deficitsPituitary Adenoma

Blood Brain Barrier

Question Answer
Molecular weight cut off for being able to cross blood brain barrier60,000
Tight junctions formed between endothelial cells, and astrocytic foot processes, restrict the passage of substances from blood to the neuronal, or extracellular, spaces within the brainBlood Brain Barrier
This allows for larger molecules to pass from blood capillaries to the circumventricular organs (CVO’s), which need to directly sample blood for harmful substances, hormonesFenestrations
MelatoninPineal gland
Oxcytocin and vasopressinNeurohypophysis
Measures toxic substances in blood ‘vomit center’Area Postrema
Regulation of bodily fluidsSubfornical Organ
Regulation of anterior pituitaryMedian Eminence
(Insert APGAR score notes)