Neuroscience - Final - Neuro Pathologies

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-04-08 17:15


Question Answer
Symptoms include Ocular palsy, Gait ataxia, Mental confusion. Most often results from chronic alcohol consumption. Treatment involves thiamine (B1) administration after which symptoms usually resolve quicklyWernicke’s Encephalopathy
The symptoms of Wernicke’s can also occur following this. The symptoms persist after the condition has been resolved. (Has to be there for a while, to cause permanent damage due to long term compression)Subdural Hematoma
Wernicke's symptoms can also occur after bariatric surgery due to this after the surgeryDecreased Thiamine Absorption
Continued chronic alcohol use can lead to this. Results in destruction of mammillary bodies. Symptoms include anterograde memory deficits, mental confusion, and confabulation. Since excessive consumption can damage cerebellum, patient may also show cerebellar symptomsKorsakoff's Psychosis
Hemorrhages may also occur in diencephalon and brainstem regions, in the gray matter surrounding 3rd and 4th ventricles, and cerebral aqueduct. Other symptoms include Ataxia, Nystagmus, Ptosis, Cardiac defects, ‘Red beefy’ tongueOpthalmoplegia
Results from - Bilateral amygdala lesions, Fronto-temporal lobe lesion/surgery, Pick’s disease, Meningitis/encephalitisKluver-Bucy Syndrome
Symptoms include Hyperphagia - gluttony, obesity. Hypersexuality - inappropriate social/sexual behavior, increased sexual activity. Visual agnosia (psychic blindness) - inability to recognize objects visually. Docility/fearlessness - previously fear-producing stimuli do not produce fearKluver-Bucy Syndrome
Premonitory symptoms will sometimes accompany, or signal the onset of these. These could include acoustic or visual hallucinations, or gustatory or olfactory sensations in the absence of stimuli, or even feelings of fear or panic Temporal Lobe Seizures
Sudden onset of transient symptoms due to underlying medical/psychiatric condition. Migraines, MS, trigeminal neuralgia are examples of conditions that could cause transient, focal, neurological symptoms. CNS functions normally in between periods of symptoms. Attacks can last from seconds to minutes, and occur 1 or 2x/day to 100’s/dayParoxysmal Disorder
Auras, blurry vision, nausea, vomiting, photophobiaMigraines
Pain that encompasses half the head for an extended period of time. Also called Hemicranium ContinuaParoxysmal Hemicranium
‘Lightning-quick’ strike of pain typically in response to non-noxious stimuliTrigeminal Neuralgia
Multiple possible neurologic symptoms due to demyelination of the axons in the brainMultiple Sclerosis
MRI shows at least 3 lesions. At least one lesion abutting (bordering) the lateral ventricles (perivascular space). At least one lesion is larger than 5 mmMultiple Sclerosis
Overly-excited brain region causes increased firing of neurons that spreads to other areas of the brain (definitely a sudden onset neurological symptom)Seizures
Look like seizures but EEG is normal. Psychologically based; Childhood abuse or trauma shows up in many histories of pseudo seizure patients.Pseudo-seizures
Seizure with myoclonus early in day, family history of epilepsyJuvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Seizure with unilateral paresthesia of tongue, lip, cheek. Unilateral clonic activity involving face, lip, speech disturbance, drooling. Intact consciousness. Usually after falling asleep. Self limitingBenign Rolandic Seizure
Seizure seen in infants 3-12 months of age. Sudden jerky movement then stiffness. Treat with ACTHInfantile Spasms/ West syndrome
Seizure with a triad of symptoms - mental retardation, slow spike and wave, multiple seizuresLennox – Gaustat Syndrome
Seizure seen in children < 5 yrs. old with a high feverFebrile Seizures
Transient CVA results in transient neurological symptomsTIA
Brief loss of consciousness with fast recoverySyncope
May be preceded by premonitory symptoms (lightheadedness, nausea, palpitations). Causes include ANS dysfunction (such as familial dsyautonomia), orthostatic hypotension, metabolic abnormalities, anemia, dehydration, hyperventilationSyncope
If the trigger for vasovagal syncope is specific, occurring during a situation that causes particular patterns of nerve stimulation, ex. coughing forcefully, urinating, intense emotional stress, hyperventilation, anxietySituational Syncope
Also known as Cardioneurogenic, is the most common type. Causes vary from sudden changes in position (Postural/Orthostatic), to meds, fatigue, or dehydration. Basically, the ANS does not respond fast enough to sudden changes. Can also be called Reflex syncopeVasovagal Syncope
Heart condition resulting in decreased blood flow to brain. Arrhythmia, clots, heart failure, aortic stenosisCardiac Syncope
Seizure, TIA, hydrocephalus, migraines, strokeNeurologic Syncope
Syncope episode in the absence of physical symptomsPseudosyncope
Autoimmune disease wherein immune system attack myelin. Age of onset typically in 30’s, more common in women, and more common the further one is from the equator. After age 50, first time onset is equal in men and womenMultiple Sclerosis
Period of symptoms (days to months) followed by recovery (usually full). Most common initial type of MSRelapse-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Occurs in persons after years of relapse-remitting. Gradual deterioration on top of relapse-remittingSecondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Steady, continuous deterioration from the onset of the disease, with relapse/recovery periodsProgressive Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Gradual, steady progression with no periods of relapse remission. Later age of onset, equal between sexesPrimary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Episode of MS-like symptoms caused by demyelination. 30-70% of cases become MSClinically Isolated Syndrome
Most common chronic neurological disorder, characterized by recurrent seizuresEpilepsy
Seizure that always start in brain. Multiple subtypesEpileptic Seizures
Seizure not caused by changes in brain electrical activityNon-Epileptic Seizures
Affect both hemispheres from the beginning of the seizure. Loss of consciousness occurs for varying periods of timeGeneralized Seizures
Tonic phase includes stiffening of the limbs, clonic phase is jerking of the limbs and face. Also known as a Grand MalGeneralized Tonic Clonic Seizure
High blood pressure and elevated levels of protein in urine in pregnant womenPre-Eclampsia
High blood pressure with tonic-clonic seizures during pregnancyEclampsia
Compression of cauda equina, resulting in symptoms below that point. (paralysis, sensory loss, parasthesia, loss of bladder control, saddle anesthesia, sexual dysfunction)Cauda Equina Syndrome
Caused by compression of sciatic nerve (either the nerve, or the root components (L4, L5, S1, S2, S3)Sciatica
Occurs in children taking aspirin with a viral condition (i.e. chickenpox). Symptoms include fatty liver disease and encephalopathy. Can be fatalReye’s Syndrome
Inflammation of medium/large blood vessels. Typically found in older population (60+), most common in caucasian women. Loss of vision most serious potential complication. Tender scalp and pain with chewing are common symptomsTemporal Arteritis
Typically occur over one eye, in ‘groups’ of headaches. Same location usually at the same time every day, occurring for days or weeks. Drooping eyelid, running nose, red eye are common symptoms. Interestingly, the patient usually finds walking around helps more than lying downCluster Headaches
Can be very similar to cluster headaches, but much higher frequency of attacks, shorter duration, and (most important) always responds to the NSAID IndometacinHemicranium Continua
Headaches are present at least 15 days/month (for at least 3 months)Chronic Migraines
Headaches are present less than 15 days/monthEpisodic Migraines
Onset typically, but not always, at orgasm. Higher frequency in men. May be clinically indistinguishable from subarachnoid hemorrhageCoital Migraine
Account for almost 90% of all headaches. Caused by stress, fatigue, dehydration, poor posture (i.e. studying positions), hunger or eyestrain. Episodic type treated with analgesics (aspirin, ibuprofen), whereas antidepressants (TCA, SSRI) are used with chronic tension headachesTension Headaches
Can be very similar to chronic migraine or tension headaches. Abrupt and ‘exact’ onset (80% of patients can tell you the exact time/date the headache started). Unremitting symptoms (i.e. never goes away). No previous headache history. Can last for monthsNew Onset Persistent Daily Headache (NPDH)
May occur after an episode of shingles. Burning pain, more common in body than facePost-Herpetic Neuralgia
Burning pain and hypersensitivity to temperature in affected areas, resulting from trauma or nerve damageComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
Also known as RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) and at one time called causalgiaComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
Chronic pain conditions resulting from some form of CNS damage. The ‘classic’ examples are - Phantom limb pain, post amputation, Pain associated with multiple sclerosis, Pain associated with Parkinson’s disease, Spinal cord injury, Post-stroke chronic painCentral Pain Syndromes
Chronic pain occurring after a stroke. Can be any CNS strokePost Stroke Chronic Pain
Pain affecting contralateral side of body. Occurs some time (weeks-month) after the initial infarct/damage to thalamus. Numbness first, then pain. Allodynia and dysaesthesia (Dysaesthesia: pain from thalamic lesion)Thalamic Pain Syndrome (Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome)