Neuroscience - Block 3 - Part 4

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-03-30 16:25


Question Answer
Level of cranial nerves themselvesNuclear
Connections between CN III, IV and VIInter-Nuclear
The ‘gaze centers’Supranuclear
White part, outermost covering of the eye. Maintains shape. Extraocular muscles are attached to it.Sclera
Clear extension of the scleraCornea
Layer underneath sclera containing blood vessels. Absorbs scattered lightChoroid (vascular layer)
Determines shape of lens and produces aqueous humorCiliary Body
Adjustable diaphragm that surrounds the pupil. Constrictor and Dilator musclesIris
Innermost layer, contains rods and conesRetina
Center of retina. Contains the Fovea Centralis, which contains only conesMacula
Area of the macula which contains only conesFovea Centralis
CN II, veins, arteries, exit the eye here.Optic disc
Depression in the center of the Optic DiscOptic or Physiological Cup
Watery fluid in the front section of the eye. Divided into two sectionsAqueous Humor
Compartment infront of the irisAnterior Chamber
Compartment behind the irisPosterior Chamber
Jelly-like fluid in the back part of the eyeVitreous Humor
Peripheral and B&W vision. 120 millionRods
Color and central vision. 6 million.Cones
Forms the optic nerveGanglion Cells
Between choroid and retina. Provides blood-brain barrier for eye, degeneration of this structure is involved in macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosaPigment Epithelium
Nasal visual field information travel to the _______ side of the brainIpsilateral
Temporal visual field information travel to the _______ side of the brainContralateral
Project to layers 2, 3 and 5 of the LGNNasal Field
Project to layers 1, 4 and 6 of the LGNTemporal Field
Neurons in the LGN are small cells which receive input from small ganglion cells in the retinaParvocellular
Neurons are large cells, receiving input from large ganglion cellsMagnocellular
Upper Visual FieldLower Bank of Calcarine Sulcus
Lower Visual FieldUpper Bank of Calcarine Sulcus
These fibers synapse on layer I, IV and VI in the lateral geniculate nucleusContralateral Fibers
These fibers synapse on layers II, III and V in the lateral geniculate nucleusIpsilateral Fibers
Dual blood supply preserves this part of the visual field in a posterior cerebral artery blockageMacula
Innervates the Superior rectus, Medial rectus, Inferior rectus and Inferior obliqueCN III
Innervates the Superior obliqueCN IV
Innervates the Lateral rectusCN VI
Action of Superior rectus and Inferior obliqueElevate the Eye
Action of Inferior rectus and Superior obliqueDepress the Eye
Action of Superior rectus and Superior obliqueMedial Rotate the Eye
Action of Inferior rectus and Inferior obliqueLateral Rotate the Eye
Action of Lateral rectusAbduct the Eye
Action of Medial rectusAdduct the Eye
Connects the frontal eye field with the nucleus of CN VIParapontine Reticular Formation (PPRF)
Three layers - Superficial receives info from retina and visual association areas (18, 19). Middle receives frontal eye field info. Deep gets ascending sensory info. Plays a big role in reflexive eye movementsSuperior Colliculus
Characterized by an absence of direct and consensual light reflexes. Miotic reaction to accommodation/convergence is still intact. May result from syphilis, diabetes, and lupusArgyl Roberson Pupils
Blind spots in the visual fieldsScotoma
Asymmetric pupils. Important to note this can be present in ‘normal’ peopleAniscoria
Contraction of Orbiculus ocli when chewing due to congenital innervation of the orbiculus ocli by parts of CN VIII. Also known as Marcus Gunn pupilRelative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD)


Open Imagining Lecture
Question Answer
CSF goes from bright to dark in this imaging techniqueMRI-T2 FLAIR
Use for imaging of tumorsMRI-T1 GAD
Use for imaging of edemaMRI-T2 DWI
Measures the extent of diffusion of water molecules over short distances. When diffusion is reduced, (i.e. cytotoxic edema) resulting from ischemic event, signal intensity is brightDiffusion Weighted (DWI)
Measures changes in cerebral blood flow. A contrast agent is used, and a rapid sequence of MRI images are obtained to determine blood flowPerfusion Weighted (PWI)
Increases accuracy in detecting active lesions in MS patientsMRI-T1 GAD
Permits greater resolution near the ventriclesMRI-T2 PD
CSF is dark. Anatomical image. Fat is very bright. Dense bone is dark. Water is darkMRI-T1
CSF is bright. Non-anatomical image. Fat is bright. Flow void is seen. Dense bone is dark. Water is brightMRI-T2
Dense bone is bright. Air is dark. Fat is dark. Water is darkCT

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